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Use of graphene as protection film in biological environments.

Zhang W, Lee S, McNear KL, Chung TF, Lee S, Lee K, Crist SA, Ratliff TL, Zhong Z, Chen YP, Yang C - Sci Rep (2014)

Bottom Line: We confirmed graphene effectively inhibits Cu surface from corrosion in different biological aqueous environments.Finally, an animal experiment showed the effective protection of graphene to Cu under in vivo condition.Our results open up the potential for using graphene coating to protect metal surface in biomedical application.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, United States.

ABSTRACT
Corrosion of metal in biomedical devices could cause serious health problems to patients. Currently ceramics coating materials used in metal implants can reduce corrosion to some extent with limitations. Here we proposed graphene as a biocompatible protective film for metal potentially for biomedical application. We confirmed graphene effectively inhibits Cu surface from corrosion in different biological aqueous environments. Results from cell viability tests suggested that graphene greatly eliminates the toxicity of Cu by inhibiting corrosion and reducing the concentration of Cu(2+) ions produced. We demonstrated that additional thiol derivatives assembled on graphene coated Cu surface can prominently enhance durability of sole graphene protection limited by the defects in graphene film. We also demonstrated that graphene coating reduced the immune response to metal in a clinical setting for the first time through the lymphocyte transformation test. Finally, an animal experiment showed the effective protection of graphene to Cu under in vivo condition. Our results open up the potential for using graphene coating to protect metal surface in biomedical application.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Concentration of Cu ions and SEM images of Cu foils after incubation for 1 day.(a) Concentrations of Cu2+ ions of control medium, and of medium after incubated with SLG/Cu, BLG/Cu and Cu for 1 day. (b) SEM images of SLG/Cu, BLG/Cu and Cu before and after incubation. Insets are high magnification SEM images for SLG/Cu and BLG/Cu after incubation, respectively. Scale bar: 1 μm.
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f3: Concentration of Cu ions and SEM images of Cu foils after incubation for 1 day.(a) Concentrations of Cu2+ ions of control medium, and of medium after incubated with SLG/Cu, BLG/Cu and Cu for 1 day. (b) SEM images of SLG/Cu, BLG/Cu and Cu before and after incubation. Insets are high magnification SEM images for SLG/Cu and BLG/Cu after incubation, respectively. Scale bar: 1 μm.

Mentions: To confirm that such greatly improved cell viability is a result of inhibition of corrosion, we carried out ICP-MS measurements to detect the ion concentration in medium from each well. Fig. 3a shows Cu2+ ion concentrations measured from different sample wells. The highest to lowest concentrations were detected from medium in cell cultures with Cu (162.3 ± 25.8 ppm), BLG/Cu (22.1 ± 2.2 ppm), SLG/Cu (6.9 ± 0.3 ppm) and the control (0.6 ± 0.0 ppm), directly correlated to the lowest to highest cell viability detected from Cu, BLG/Cu, SLG/Cu and control samples (Fig. 2), respectively. Notably, despite that Cu2+ ion concentration inside the cells might be distinct from the concentration in the medium, fewer cells are expected to survive when exposed to higher concentration of Cu2+ ions. Additionally, the ionic concentration obtained from BLG/Cu culture is slightly larger than that from SLG/Cu culture, which is consistent with results of cell viability (Fig. 2) and chemical experiments (Fig. 1).


Use of graphene as protection film in biological environments.

Zhang W, Lee S, McNear KL, Chung TF, Lee S, Lee K, Crist SA, Ratliff TL, Zhong Z, Chen YP, Yang C - Sci Rep (2014)

Concentration of Cu ions and SEM images of Cu foils after incubation for 1 day.(a) Concentrations of Cu2+ ions of control medium, and of medium after incubated with SLG/Cu, BLG/Cu and Cu for 1 day. (b) SEM images of SLG/Cu, BLG/Cu and Cu before and after incubation. Insets are high magnification SEM images for SLG/Cu and BLG/Cu after incubation, respectively. Scale bar: 1 μm.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3924215&req=5

f3: Concentration of Cu ions and SEM images of Cu foils after incubation for 1 day.(a) Concentrations of Cu2+ ions of control medium, and of medium after incubated with SLG/Cu, BLG/Cu and Cu for 1 day. (b) SEM images of SLG/Cu, BLG/Cu and Cu before and after incubation. Insets are high magnification SEM images for SLG/Cu and BLG/Cu after incubation, respectively. Scale bar: 1 μm.
Mentions: To confirm that such greatly improved cell viability is a result of inhibition of corrosion, we carried out ICP-MS measurements to detect the ion concentration in medium from each well. Fig. 3a shows Cu2+ ion concentrations measured from different sample wells. The highest to lowest concentrations were detected from medium in cell cultures with Cu (162.3 ± 25.8 ppm), BLG/Cu (22.1 ± 2.2 ppm), SLG/Cu (6.9 ± 0.3 ppm) and the control (0.6 ± 0.0 ppm), directly correlated to the lowest to highest cell viability detected from Cu, BLG/Cu, SLG/Cu and control samples (Fig. 2), respectively. Notably, despite that Cu2+ ion concentration inside the cells might be distinct from the concentration in the medium, fewer cells are expected to survive when exposed to higher concentration of Cu2+ ions. Additionally, the ionic concentration obtained from BLG/Cu culture is slightly larger than that from SLG/Cu culture, which is consistent with results of cell viability (Fig. 2) and chemical experiments (Fig. 1).

Bottom Line: We confirmed graphene effectively inhibits Cu surface from corrosion in different biological aqueous environments.Finally, an animal experiment showed the effective protection of graphene to Cu under in vivo condition.Our results open up the potential for using graphene coating to protect metal surface in biomedical application.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, United States.

ABSTRACT
Corrosion of metal in biomedical devices could cause serious health problems to patients. Currently ceramics coating materials used in metal implants can reduce corrosion to some extent with limitations. Here we proposed graphene as a biocompatible protective film for metal potentially for biomedical application. We confirmed graphene effectively inhibits Cu surface from corrosion in different biological aqueous environments. Results from cell viability tests suggested that graphene greatly eliminates the toxicity of Cu by inhibiting corrosion and reducing the concentration of Cu(2+) ions produced. We demonstrated that additional thiol derivatives assembled on graphene coated Cu surface can prominently enhance durability of sole graphene protection limited by the defects in graphene film. We also demonstrated that graphene coating reduced the immune response to metal in a clinical setting for the first time through the lymphocyte transformation test. Finally, an animal experiment showed the effective protection of graphene to Cu under in vivo condition. Our results open up the potential for using graphene coating to protect metal surface in biomedical application.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus