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Anti-idiotypic antibodies reduce efficacy of the attenuated vaccine against highly pathogenic PRRSV challenge.

Yu Y, Cai X, Wang G, Kong N, Liu Y, Xiao Y, Zhang C, Mu Y, Xiao S, Zhao Q, Wang C, Zhang G, Hiscox JA, Zhou EM - BMC Vet. Res. (2014)

Bottom Line: The inability of current vaccines to provide effective protection against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection is not fully understood.After PRRSV HuN4 challenge, the animals showed obvious clinical signs, including lung lesions, severe thymus atrophy and decreased production of IL-4 and higher level of viremia.It can result in poor health status with pneumonia and thymus atrophy.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China. zhouem@nwsuaf.edu.cn.

ABSTRACT

Background: The inability of current vaccines to provide effective protection against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection is not fully understood. One of the reasons might be the presence of anti-idiotypic antibodies (Ab2s) to the envelope glycoprotein GP5 induced by PRRSV infection since our previous studies demonstrated the presence of auto-Ab2s (aAb2s) in pigs infected with PRRSV. To test this hypothesis, PRRSV negative piglets were injected with a monoclonal Ab2 (Mab2-5G2) and aAb2s that are specific for anti-GP5 antibody, vaccinated with the attenuated PRRSV vaccine CH-1R and then challenged with the highly pathogenic PRRSV HuN4 strain. The animals were evaluated for clinical signs, pathological changes of the thymus and lungs, viremia, levels of serum antibodies and cytokines.

Results: The piglets injected with Mab2-5G2 or aAb2, and who received the attenuated PRRSV vaccine CH-1R before challenge, produced high levels of anti-N antibodies, IL-2 and IL-4, but low levels of neutralizing antibodies. After PRRSV HuN4 challenge, the animals showed obvious clinical signs, including lung lesions, severe thymus atrophy and decreased production of IL-4 and higher level of viremia.

Conclusion: When anti-GP5 Ab2s are present, the use of attenuated PRRSV vaccine CH-1R against HP-PRRSV infection is not recommended. It can result in poor health status with pneumonia and thymus atrophy.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Levels of serum antibodies. Anti-N antibodies were detected using the HerdCheck® PRRS ELISA kit with the cutoff value of S/P ratio of 0.4 (A) and anti-GP2/GP5 antibodies were detected using the LIVTESTSUISPRRS A/S® kit with the relative index (expressed as a percentage) greater than 20 as positive (B). Each point represents the mean (±S.D.) generated from six groups of piglets on different DPIs or DPCs.
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Figure 5: Levels of serum antibodies. Anti-N antibodies were detected using the HerdCheck® PRRS ELISA kit with the cutoff value of S/P ratio of 0.4 (A) and anti-GP2/GP5 antibodies were detected using the LIVTESTSUISPRRS A/S® kit with the relative index (expressed as a percentage) greater than 20 as positive (B). Each point represents the mean (±S.D.) generated from six groups of piglets on different DPIs or DPCs.

Mentions: Anti-PRRSV antibodies from all piglets were detected in sequential serum samples collected from 0 DPI to 21 DPC. The results of anti-N antibodies measured by IDEXX ELISA were shown in Figure 5A. Piglets in Groups 1 to 4 seroconverted as early as 35 DPI (21 days post vaccination) with an average S/P value of about 0.5 and rose quickly after HP-PRRSV challenge. In contrast, piglets in Group 5 seroconverted on 10 DPC with the average S/P value of 1.0 and peaked on 14 DPC (S/P = 1.42). Group 6 piglets had no detectable anti-N antibodies.


Anti-idiotypic antibodies reduce efficacy of the attenuated vaccine against highly pathogenic PRRSV challenge.

Yu Y, Cai X, Wang G, Kong N, Liu Y, Xiao Y, Zhang C, Mu Y, Xiao S, Zhao Q, Wang C, Zhang G, Hiscox JA, Zhou EM - BMC Vet. Res. (2014)

Levels of serum antibodies. Anti-N antibodies were detected using the HerdCheck® PRRS ELISA kit with the cutoff value of S/P ratio of 0.4 (A) and anti-GP2/GP5 antibodies were detected using the LIVTESTSUISPRRS A/S® kit with the relative index (expressed as a percentage) greater than 20 as positive (B). Each point represents the mean (±S.D.) generated from six groups of piglets on different DPIs or DPCs.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3921987&req=5

Figure 5: Levels of serum antibodies. Anti-N antibodies were detected using the HerdCheck® PRRS ELISA kit with the cutoff value of S/P ratio of 0.4 (A) and anti-GP2/GP5 antibodies were detected using the LIVTESTSUISPRRS A/S® kit with the relative index (expressed as a percentage) greater than 20 as positive (B). Each point represents the mean (±S.D.) generated from six groups of piglets on different DPIs or DPCs.
Mentions: Anti-PRRSV antibodies from all piglets were detected in sequential serum samples collected from 0 DPI to 21 DPC. The results of anti-N antibodies measured by IDEXX ELISA were shown in Figure 5A. Piglets in Groups 1 to 4 seroconverted as early as 35 DPI (21 days post vaccination) with an average S/P value of about 0.5 and rose quickly after HP-PRRSV challenge. In contrast, piglets in Group 5 seroconverted on 10 DPC with the average S/P value of 1.0 and peaked on 14 DPC (S/P = 1.42). Group 6 piglets had no detectable anti-N antibodies.

Bottom Line: The inability of current vaccines to provide effective protection against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection is not fully understood.After PRRSV HuN4 challenge, the animals showed obvious clinical signs, including lung lesions, severe thymus atrophy and decreased production of IL-4 and higher level of viremia.It can result in poor health status with pneumonia and thymus atrophy.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China. zhouem@nwsuaf.edu.cn.

ABSTRACT

Background: The inability of current vaccines to provide effective protection against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection is not fully understood. One of the reasons might be the presence of anti-idiotypic antibodies (Ab2s) to the envelope glycoprotein GP5 induced by PRRSV infection since our previous studies demonstrated the presence of auto-Ab2s (aAb2s) in pigs infected with PRRSV. To test this hypothesis, PRRSV negative piglets were injected with a monoclonal Ab2 (Mab2-5G2) and aAb2s that are specific for anti-GP5 antibody, vaccinated with the attenuated PRRSV vaccine CH-1R and then challenged with the highly pathogenic PRRSV HuN4 strain. The animals were evaluated for clinical signs, pathological changes of the thymus and lungs, viremia, levels of serum antibodies and cytokines.

Results: The piglets injected with Mab2-5G2 or aAb2, and who received the attenuated PRRSV vaccine CH-1R before challenge, produced high levels of anti-N antibodies, IL-2 and IL-4, but low levels of neutralizing antibodies. After PRRSV HuN4 challenge, the animals showed obvious clinical signs, including lung lesions, severe thymus atrophy and decreased production of IL-4 and higher level of viremia.

Conclusion: When anti-GP5 Ab2s are present, the use of attenuated PRRSV vaccine CH-1R against HP-PRRSV infection is not recommended. It can result in poor health status with pneumonia and thymus atrophy.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus