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Electroacupuncture at Acupoints Reverses Plasma Glutamate, Lipid, and LDL/VLDL in an Acute Migraine Rat Model: A (1) H NMR-Based Metabolomic Study.

Gao Z, Liu X, Yu S, Zhang Q, Chen Q, Wu Q, Liu J, Sun B, Fang L, Lin J, Zhu BM, Yan X, Liang F - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2014)

Bottom Line: Glutamate was significantly increased (P < 0.01), whereas lipids were significantly decreased (P < 0.01) in model rats.Interestingly, the number of head-scratching and glutamate level were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) after receiving EA at both acupoints and nonacupoints.Conclusions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Clinical Acupuncture and Moxibustion Department, Second School of Clinical Medicine, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210029, China ; Acupuncture and Tuina College, Chengdu University of TCM, Chengdu, Sichuan 610075, China.

ABSTRACT
Background. The objective of this study was to identify potential biomarkers of electroacupuncture (EA) on relieving acute migraine through metabolomic study. Methods. EA treatments were performed on both acupoints and nonacupoints on the nitroglycerin (NTG)-induced migraine rat model. NMR experiments and multivariate analysis were used for metabolomic analysis. Results. The number of head-scratching, the main ethology index of migraine rat model, was significantly increased (P < 0.01) after NTG injection. The plasma metabolic profile of model group was distinct from that of the control group. Glutamate was significantly increased (P < 0.01), whereas lipids were significantly decreased (P < 0.01) in model rats. After EA at acupoints, the metabolic profile of model rats was normalized, with decreased glutamate (P < 0.05) and increased lipids (P < 0.01). In contrast, EA at nonacupoints did not restore the metabolic profile, but with six metabolites significantly different from acupoints group. Interestingly, the number of head-scratching and glutamate level were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) after receiving EA at both acupoints and nonacupoints. Conclusions. EA at acupoints may relieve acute migraine by restoring the plasma metabolic profile and plasma glutamate, while EA at nonacupoints may modestly relieve acute migraine by decreasing plasma glutamate.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

OSC-PLS analysis discriminates clear separation between EA at acupoints and EA at nonacupoints in the acute migraine rat model. NTG group (red dots), EA group (blue diamonds), NA group (purple stars), and control (black boxes) group. CPMG analyses were conducted (a) among three groups and (b) among EA, NA, and control group. LED analyses were conducted (c) among three groups and (d) among EA, NA, and control group and (e) between EA and NA group (n = 10).
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fig5: OSC-PLS analysis discriminates clear separation between EA at acupoints and EA at nonacupoints in the acute migraine rat model. NTG group (red dots), EA group (blue diamonds), NA group (purple stars), and control (black boxes) group. CPMG analyses were conducted (a) among three groups and (b) among EA, NA, and control group. LED analyses were conducted (c) among three groups and (d) among EA, NA, and control group and (e) between EA and NA group (n = 10).

Mentions: A remaining question is whether there are any metabolomic differences between EA at acupoints and EA at nonacupoints. To address this question, we next executed PLS analysis with OSC pretreatment on both CPMG and LED data among the control, NTG, and the NA groups. After 20 min of EA at nonacupoints, we observed that the metabolic profiling of the NA group was clearly separated from that of the control and the NTG group (Figure 5(a), R2X = 74.2%, R2Y = 98.9%, and Q2 = 97.6%). Meanwhile, of particular interest are data shown in Figure 5(b) (R2X = 65.1%, R2Y = 99.1%, Q2 = 96.4%) and Figure 5(d) (R2X = 72.7%, R2Y = 98.8%, Q2 = 88.7%), illustrating that the metabolic profile of the NA group was clearly distinct from controls, unlike EA group, which was very similar to controls. Furthermore, a clear separation was observed between the EA group and the NA group along PC1 (Figure 5(e), R2X = 63.6%, R2Y = 99.9%, Q2 = 99.3%). The levels of six metabolites including lipid (CH2), choline, alanine, isoleucine, LDL/VLDL, and NAc were significantly different in the EA group compared to the NA group (Figure 6(f); P < 0.05). Combined, these data suggest that EA at nonacupoints cannot reverse NTG-induced changes, but there are distinct differences compared to EA at acupoints, and this was characterized by different metabolic profiling and a series of significant changes of plasma metabolites in the NA groups relative to EA group. In contrast, we found that the level of glutamate, an important excitatory neurotransmitter that triggers migraine, was significantly decreased in both EA and NA groups compared with the NTG group. This observation indicates that glutamate may be crucial for electroacupuncture to relieve acute migraine, but it is not acupoint-dependent.


Electroacupuncture at Acupoints Reverses Plasma Glutamate, Lipid, and LDL/VLDL in an Acute Migraine Rat Model: A (1) H NMR-Based Metabolomic Study.

Gao Z, Liu X, Yu S, Zhang Q, Chen Q, Wu Q, Liu J, Sun B, Fang L, Lin J, Zhu BM, Yan X, Liang F - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2014)

OSC-PLS analysis discriminates clear separation between EA at acupoints and EA at nonacupoints in the acute migraine rat model. NTG group (red dots), EA group (blue diamonds), NA group (purple stars), and control (black boxes) group. CPMG analyses were conducted (a) among three groups and (b) among EA, NA, and control group. LED analyses were conducted (c) among three groups and (d) among EA, NA, and control group and (e) between EA and NA group (n = 10).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3921982&req=5

fig5: OSC-PLS analysis discriminates clear separation between EA at acupoints and EA at nonacupoints in the acute migraine rat model. NTG group (red dots), EA group (blue diamonds), NA group (purple stars), and control (black boxes) group. CPMG analyses were conducted (a) among three groups and (b) among EA, NA, and control group. LED analyses were conducted (c) among three groups and (d) among EA, NA, and control group and (e) between EA and NA group (n = 10).
Mentions: A remaining question is whether there are any metabolomic differences between EA at acupoints and EA at nonacupoints. To address this question, we next executed PLS analysis with OSC pretreatment on both CPMG and LED data among the control, NTG, and the NA groups. After 20 min of EA at nonacupoints, we observed that the metabolic profiling of the NA group was clearly separated from that of the control and the NTG group (Figure 5(a), R2X = 74.2%, R2Y = 98.9%, and Q2 = 97.6%). Meanwhile, of particular interest are data shown in Figure 5(b) (R2X = 65.1%, R2Y = 99.1%, Q2 = 96.4%) and Figure 5(d) (R2X = 72.7%, R2Y = 98.8%, Q2 = 88.7%), illustrating that the metabolic profile of the NA group was clearly distinct from controls, unlike EA group, which was very similar to controls. Furthermore, a clear separation was observed between the EA group and the NA group along PC1 (Figure 5(e), R2X = 63.6%, R2Y = 99.9%, Q2 = 99.3%). The levels of six metabolites including lipid (CH2), choline, alanine, isoleucine, LDL/VLDL, and NAc were significantly different in the EA group compared to the NA group (Figure 6(f); P < 0.05). Combined, these data suggest that EA at nonacupoints cannot reverse NTG-induced changes, but there are distinct differences compared to EA at acupoints, and this was characterized by different metabolic profiling and a series of significant changes of plasma metabolites in the NA groups relative to EA group. In contrast, we found that the level of glutamate, an important excitatory neurotransmitter that triggers migraine, was significantly decreased in both EA and NA groups compared with the NTG group. This observation indicates that glutamate may be crucial for electroacupuncture to relieve acute migraine, but it is not acupoint-dependent.

Bottom Line: Glutamate was significantly increased (P < 0.01), whereas lipids were significantly decreased (P < 0.01) in model rats.Interestingly, the number of head-scratching and glutamate level were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) after receiving EA at both acupoints and nonacupoints.Conclusions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Clinical Acupuncture and Moxibustion Department, Second School of Clinical Medicine, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210029, China ; Acupuncture and Tuina College, Chengdu University of TCM, Chengdu, Sichuan 610075, China.

ABSTRACT
Background. The objective of this study was to identify potential biomarkers of electroacupuncture (EA) on relieving acute migraine through metabolomic study. Methods. EA treatments were performed on both acupoints and nonacupoints on the nitroglycerin (NTG)-induced migraine rat model. NMR experiments and multivariate analysis were used for metabolomic analysis. Results. The number of head-scratching, the main ethology index of migraine rat model, was significantly increased (P < 0.01) after NTG injection. The plasma metabolic profile of model group was distinct from that of the control group. Glutamate was significantly increased (P < 0.01), whereas lipids were significantly decreased (P < 0.01) in model rats. After EA at acupoints, the metabolic profile of model rats was normalized, with decreased glutamate (P < 0.05) and increased lipids (P < 0.01). In contrast, EA at nonacupoints did not restore the metabolic profile, but with six metabolites significantly different from acupoints group. Interestingly, the number of head-scratching and glutamate level were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) after receiving EA at both acupoints and nonacupoints. Conclusions. EA at acupoints may relieve acute migraine by restoring the plasma metabolic profile and plasma glutamate, while EA at nonacupoints may modestly relieve acute migraine by decreasing plasma glutamate.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus