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Electroacupuncture at Acupoints Reverses Plasma Glutamate, Lipid, and LDL/VLDL in an Acute Migraine Rat Model: A (1) H NMR-Based Metabolomic Study.

Gao Z, Liu X, Yu S, Zhang Q, Chen Q, Wu Q, Liu J, Sun B, Fang L, Lin J, Zhu BM, Yan X, Liang F - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2014)

Bottom Line: Glutamate was significantly increased (P < 0.01), whereas lipids were significantly decreased (P < 0.01) in model rats.Interestingly, the number of head-scratching and glutamate level were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) after receiving EA at both acupoints and nonacupoints.Conclusions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Clinical Acupuncture and Moxibustion Department, Second School of Clinical Medicine, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210029, China ; Acupuncture and Tuina College, Chengdu University of TCM, Chengdu, Sichuan 610075, China.

ABSTRACT
Background. The objective of this study was to identify potential biomarkers of electroacupuncture (EA) on relieving acute migraine through metabolomic study. Methods. EA treatments were performed on both acupoints and nonacupoints on the nitroglycerin (NTG)-induced migraine rat model. NMR experiments and multivariate analysis were used for metabolomic analysis. Results. The number of head-scratching, the main ethology index of migraine rat model, was significantly increased (P < 0.01) after NTG injection. The plasma metabolic profile of model group was distinct from that of the control group. Glutamate was significantly increased (P < 0.01), whereas lipids were significantly decreased (P < 0.01) in model rats. After EA at acupoints, the metabolic profile of model rats was normalized, with decreased glutamate (P < 0.05) and increased lipids (P < 0.01). In contrast, EA at nonacupoints did not restore the metabolic profile, but with six metabolites significantly different from acupoints group. Interestingly, the number of head-scratching and glutamate level were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) after receiving EA at both acupoints and nonacupoints. Conclusions. EA at acupoints may relieve acute migraine by restoring the plasma metabolic profile and plasma glutamate, while EA at nonacupoints may modestly relieve acute migraine by decreasing plasma glutamate.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

1H NMR spectra of rat plasma samples. (a) CPMG spectra; (b) LED spectra; A, control; B, NTG group; C, NA group; D, EA group (n = 10).
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fig2: 1H NMR spectra of rat plasma samples. (a) CPMG spectra; (b) LED spectra; A, control; B, NTG group; C, NA group; D, EA group (n = 10).

Mentions: Based on previous studies, the HMDB website (http://www.hmdb.ca/) and the ChenomxNMR Suite software, major metabolites in plasma were identified and shown in Figure 2. CPMG pulse sequence was used to emphasize the resonances of small metabolites in plasma, while resonances from macromolecules were attenuated (Figure 2(a)). Figure 2(b) shows diffusion-edited NMR spectra of plasma from each group, displaying the signals of lipids, N-acetyl glycoproteins (NAc), and O-acetyl glycoproteins (OAc) groups of glycoproteins. Subtle differences of these spectra were observed by visual inspection among the four groups. Further analysis was performed using multivariate statistical analysis to determine the metabolic changes among the four groups.


Electroacupuncture at Acupoints Reverses Plasma Glutamate, Lipid, and LDL/VLDL in an Acute Migraine Rat Model: A (1) H NMR-Based Metabolomic Study.

Gao Z, Liu X, Yu S, Zhang Q, Chen Q, Wu Q, Liu J, Sun B, Fang L, Lin J, Zhu BM, Yan X, Liang F - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2014)

1H NMR spectra of rat plasma samples. (a) CPMG spectra; (b) LED spectra; A, control; B, NTG group; C, NA group; D, EA group (n = 10).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3921982&req=5

fig2: 1H NMR spectra of rat plasma samples. (a) CPMG spectra; (b) LED spectra; A, control; B, NTG group; C, NA group; D, EA group (n = 10).
Mentions: Based on previous studies, the HMDB website (http://www.hmdb.ca/) and the ChenomxNMR Suite software, major metabolites in plasma were identified and shown in Figure 2. CPMG pulse sequence was used to emphasize the resonances of small metabolites in plasma, while resonances from macromolecules were attenuated (Figure 2(a)). Figure 2(b) shows diffusion-edited NMR spectra of plasma from each group, displaying the signals of lipids, N-acetyl glycoproteins (NAc), and O-acetyl glycoproteins (OAc) groups of glycoproteins. Subtle differences of these spectra were observed by visual inspection among the four groups. Further analysis was performed using multivariate statistical analysis to determine the metabolic changes among the four groups.

Bottom Line: Glutamate was significantly increased (P < 0.01), whereas lipids were significantly decreased (P < 0.01) in model rats.Interestingly, the number of head-scratching and glutamate level were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) after receiving EA at both acupoints and nonacupoints.Conclusions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Clinical Acupuncture and Moxibustion Department, Second School of Clinical Medicine, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210029, China ; Acupuncture and Tuina College, Chengdu University of TCM, Chengdu, Sichuan 610075, China.

ABSTRACT
Background. The objective of this study was to identify potential biomarkers of electroacupuncture (EA) on relieving acute migraine through metabolomic study. Methods. EA treatments were performed on both acupoints and nonacupoints on the nitroglycerin (NTG)-induced migraine rat model. NMR experiments and multivariate analysis were used for metabolomic analysis. Results. The number of head-scratching, the main ethology index of migraine rat model, was significantly increased (P < 0.01) after NTG injection. The plasma metabolic profile of model group was distinct from that of the control group. Glutamate was significantly increased (P < 0.01), whereas lipids were significantly decreased (P < 0.01) in model rats. After EA at acupoints, the metabolic profile of model rats was normalized, with decreased glutamate (P < 0.05) and increased lipids (P < 0.01). In contrast, EA at nonacupoints did not restore the metabolic profile, but with six metabolites significantly different from acupoints group. Interestingly, the number of head-scratching and glutamate level were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) after receiving EA at both acupoints and nonacupoints. Conclusions. EA at acupoints may relieve acute migraine by restoring the plasma metabolic profile and plasma glutamate, while EA at nonacupoints may modestly relieve acute migraine by decreasing plasma glutamate.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus