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Determination of volatile compounds in four commercial samples of Japanese green algae using solid phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry.

Yamamoto M, Baldermann S, Yoshikawa K, Fujita A, Mase N, Watanabe N - ScientificWorldJournal (2014)

Bottom Line: Seaweed is consumed fresh or as seasoning in Japan.Benzaldehyde was predominant in seaweed from Shizuoka prefecture (Monostroma nitidum).This work shows the potential of SPME-GC-MS coupled with multivariant analysis to discriminate between samples of different geographical and botanical origins and form the basis for development of authentication methods of green algae products, including seasonings.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Integrated Bioscience Section, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8529, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Green algae are of great economic importance. Seaweed is consumed fresh or as seasoning in Japan. The commercial value is determined by quality, color, and flavor and is also strongly influenced by the production area. Our research, based on solid phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS), has revealed that volatile compounds differ intensely in the four varieties of commercial green algae. Accordingly, 41 major volatile compounds were identified. Heptadecene was the most abundant compound from Okayama (Ulva prolifera), Tokushima (Ulva prolifera), and Ehime prefecture (Ulva linza). Apocarotenoids, such as ionones, and their derivatives were prominent volatiles in algae from Okayama (Ulva prolifera) and Tokushima prefecture (Ulva prolifera). Volatile, short chained apocarotenoids are among the most potent flavor components and contribute to the flavor of fresh, processed algae, and algae-based products. Benzaldehyde was predominant in seaweed from Shizuoka prefecture (Monostroma nitidum). Multivariant statistical analysis (PCA) enabled simple discrimination of the samples based on their volatile profiles. This work shows the potential of SPME-GC-MS coupled with multivariant analysis to discriminate between samples of different geographical and botanical origins and form the basis for development of authentication methods of green algae products, including seasonings.

Show MeSH
Scoring plots of nontargeted profiling of green algae samples of different origin by GC-MS-SPME. The profiling was carried out based on 41 peaks and detected corresponding peak area ratios. Samples were independently analyzed in triplicate. The data were analyzed by PCA using XL-STAT 2013.2.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection


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fig5: Scoring plots of nontargeted profiling of green algae samples of different origin by GC-MS-SPME. The profiling was carried out based on 41 peaks and detected corresponding peak area ratios. Samples were independently analyzed in triplicate. The data were analyzed by PCA using XL-STAT 2013.2.

Mentions: Multi-variant analysis of known components was performed on the mass spectral data to explain the overall characteristics of the differences among the samples. PCA was performed using a transformed data set consisting of correlation matrix of 41 variables yielding in 11 eigenvectors. Five factors explained 92.39% of the total variance, indicating that a reduced number of volatile compounds could explain the overall characteristics of the four different samples. Factor 1 explained 48.13% of the total variance and factor 2 explained 20.14% of the total variance. Both factors together enable discrimination of the four algae samples from different biological and geographical origins (Figure 5). It is interesting that there are fewer differences in the volatile profiles of samples from close geographic origins, such as Tokushima and Okayama, compared with samples which are further away from each other, for example, Tokushima and Ehime. Future studies should be performed with a higher number of replicates and taking into account testing sets.


Determination of volatile compounds in four commercial samples of Japanese green algae using solid phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry.

Yamamoto M, Baldermann S, Yoshikawa K, Fujita A, Mase N, Watanabe N - ScientificWorldJournal (2014)

Scoring plots of nontargeted profiling of green algae samples of different origin by GC-MS-SPME. The profiling was carried out based on 41 peaks and detected corresponding peak area ratios. Samples were independently analyzed in triplicate. The data were analyzed by PCA using XL-STAT 2013.2.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3921977&req=5

fig5: Scoring plots of nontargeted profiling of green algae samples of different origin by GC-MS-SPME. The profiling was carried out based on 41 peaks and detected corresponding peak area ratios. Samples were independently analyzed in triplicate. The data were analyzed by PCA using XL-STAT 2013.2.
Mentions: Multi-variant analysis of known components was performed on the mass spectral data to explain the overall characteristics of the differences among the samples. PCA was performed using a transformed data set consisting of correlation matrix of 41 variables yielding in 11 eigenvectors. Five factors explained 92.39% of the total variance, indicating that a reduced number of volatile compounds could explain the overall characteristics of the four different samples. Factor 1 explained 48.13% of the total variance and factor 2 explained 20.14% of the total variance. Both factors together enable discrimination of the four algae samples from different biological and geographical origins (Figure 5). It is interesting that there are fewer differences in the volatile profiles of samples from close geographic origins, such as Tokushima and Okayama, compared with samples which are further away from each other, for example, Tokushima and Ehime. Future studies should be performed with a higher number of replicates and taking into account testing sets.

Bottom Line: Seaweed is consumed fresh or as seasoning in Japan.Benzaldehyde was predominant in seaweed from Shizuoka prefecture (Monostroma nitidum).This work shows the potential of SPME-GC-MS coupled with multivariant analysis to discriminate between samples of different geographical and botanical origins and form the basis for development of authentication methods of green algae products, including seasonings.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Integrated Bioscience Section, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8529, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Green algae are of great economic importance. Seaweed is consumed fresh or as seasoning in Japan. The commercial value is determined by quality, color, and flavor and is also strongly influenced by the production area. Our research, based on solid phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS), has revealed that volatile compounds differ intensely in the four varieties of commercial green algae. Accordingly, 41 major volatile compounds were identified. Heptadecene was the most abundant compound from Okayama (Ulva prolifera), Tokushima (Ulva prolifera), and Ehime prefecture (Ulva linza). Apocarotenoids, such as ionones, and their derivatives were prominent volatiles in algae from Okayama (Ulva prolifera) and Tokushima prefecture (Ulva prolifera). Volatile, short chained apocarotenoids are among the most potent flavor components and contribute to the flavor of fresh, processed algae, and algae-based products. Benzaldehyde was predominant in seaweed from Shizuoka prefecture (Monostroma nitidum). Multivariant statistical analysis (PCA) enabled simple discrimination of the samples based on their volatile profiles. This work shows the potential of SPME-GC-MS coupled with multivariant analysis to discriminate between samples of different geographical and botanical origins and form the basis for development of authentication methods of green algae products, including seasonings.

Show MeSH