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Anomalies of the inferior vena cava and renal veins and implications for renal surgery.

Eldefrawy A, Arianayagam M, Kanagarajah P, Acosta K, Manoharan M - Cent European J Urol (2011)

Bottom Line: The embryological development of the IVC is complex and involves the development and regression of three sets of paired veins.There may be significant hemorrhage or damage to vascular structures.In addition, aberrant vessels may be mistaken for lymphadenopathy and may be biopsied.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Urology, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.

ABSTRACT
Abnormalities of the inferior vena cava (IVC) and renal veins are extremely rare. However, with the increasing use of computed tomography (CT), these anomalies are more frequently diagnosed. The majority of venous anomalies are asymptomatic and they include left sided IVC, duplicated IVC, absent IVC as well as retro-aortic and circumaortic renal veins. The embryological development of the IVC is complex and involves the development and regression of three sets of paired veins. During renal surgery, undiagnosed venous anomalies may lead to major complications. There may be significant hemorrhage or damage to vascular structures. In addition, aberrant vessels may be mistaken for lymphadenopathy and may be biopsied. In this review we discuss the embryology of the IVC and the possible anomalies of IVC and its tributaries paying particular attention to diagnosis and implications for renal surgery.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Subcardinal and supracardinal veins. Figure 1a demonstrates the three sets of paired veins that develop in the embryo, namely the subcardinal (blue), supracardinal (red) and postcardinal veins (grey). 1b. The right subcardinal vein becomes dominant. Figure 1b demonstrates regression of the postcardinal veins; the supracardinal veins become dominant infrarenally, while the subcardinal veins become dominant above the renal veins. 1c. Final structure of the IVC. Figure 1c demonstrates the final composition of the inferior vena cava.
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Figure 0001: Subcardinal and supracardinal veins. Figure 1a demonstrates the three sets of paired veins that develop in the embryo, namely the subcardinal (blue), supracardinal (red) and postcardinal veins (grey). 1b. The right subcardinal vein becomes dominant. Figure 1b demonstrates regression of the postcardinal veins; the supracardinal veins become dominant infrarenally, while the subcardinal veins become dominant above the renal veins. 1c. Final structure of the IVC. Figure 1c demonstrates the final composition of the inferior vena cava.

Mentions: The IVC and its tributaries start to develop by the 6th week of fetal life. Development is completed by the 8th week. Three pairs of cardinal veins contribute to the IVC and its tributaries and they are illustrated in Figure 1a [3].


Anomalies of the inferior vena cava and renal veins and implications for renal surgery.

Eldefrawy A, Arianayagam M, Kanagarajah P, Acosta K, Manoharan M - Cent European J Urol (2011)

Subcardinal and supracardinal veins. Figure 1a demonstrates the three sets of paired veins that develop in the embryo, namely the subcardinal (blue), supracardinal (red) and postcardinal veins (grey). 1b. The right subcardinal vein becomes dominant. Figure 1b demonstrates regression of the postcardinal veins; the supracardinal veins become dominant infrarenally, while the subcardinal veins become dominant above the renal veins. 1c. Final structure of the IVC. Figure 1c demonstrates the final composition of the inferior vena cava.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3921701&req=5

Figure 0001: Subcardinal and supracardinal veins. Figure 1a demonstrates the three sets of paired veins that develop in the embryo, namely the subcardinal (blue), supracardinal (red) and postcardinal veins (grey). 1b. The right subcardinal vein becomes dominant. Figure 1b demonstrates regression of the postcardinal veins; the supracardinal veins become dominant infrarenally, while the subcardinal veins become dominant above the renal veins. 1c. Final structure of the IVC. Figure 1c demonstrates the final composition of the inferior vena cava.
Mentions: The IVC and its tributaries start to develop by the 6th week of fetal life. Development is completed by the 8th week. Three pairs of cardinal veins contribute to the IVC and its tributaries and they are illustrated in Figure 1a [3].

Bottom Line: The embryological development of the IVC is complex and involves the development and regression of three sets of paired veins.There may be significant hemorrhage or damage to vascular structures.In addition, aberrant vessels may be mistaken for lymphadenopathy and may be biopsied.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Urology, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.

ABSTRACT
Abnormalities of the inferior vena cava (IVC) and renal veins are extremely rare. However, with the increasing use of computed tomography (CT), these anomalies are more frequently diagnosed. The majority of venous anomalies are asymptomatic and they include left sided IVC, duplicated IVC, absent IVC as well as retro-aortic and circumaortic renal veins. The embryological development of the IVC is complex and involves the development and regression of three sets of paired veins. During renal surgery, undiagnosed venous anomalies may lead to major complications. There may be significant hemorrhage or damage to vascular structures. In addition, aberrant vessels may be mistaken for lymphadenopathy and may be biopsied. In this review we discuss the embryology of the IVC and the possible anomalies of IVC and its tributaries paying particular attention to diagnosis and implications for renal surgery.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus