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"I pick you": the impact of fairness and race on infants' selection of social partners.

Burns MP, Sommerville JA - Front Psychol (2014)

Bottom Line: In Experiment 2, when fairness, the race of the distributor, and the race of the recipients were fully crossed, Caucasian infants' social selections varied as a function of the race of the recipient advantaged by the unfair distributor.Specifically, infants were more likely to select the fair distributor when the unfair recipient advantaged the Asian (versus the Caucasian) recipient.These findings provide evidence that infants select social partners on the basis of prior fair behavior and that infants also take into account the race of distributors and recipients when making their social selections.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Washington Seattle, WA, USA.

ABSTRACT
By 15 months of age infants are sensitive to violations of fairness norms as assessed via their enhanced visual attention to unfair versus fair outcomes in violation-of-expectation paradigms. The current study investigated whether 15-month-old infants select social partners on the basis of prior fair versus unfair behavior, and whether infants integrate social selections on the basis of fairness with the race of the distributors and recipients involved in the exchange. Experiment 1 demonstrated that after witnessing one adult distribute toys to two recipients fairly (2:2 distribution), and another adult distribute toys to two recipients unfairly (1:3 distribution), Caucasian infants selected fair over unfair distributors when both distributors were Caucasian; however, this preference was not present when the fair actor was Asian and the unfair actor was Caucasian. In Experiment 2, when fairness, the race of the distributor, and the race of the recipients were fully crossed, Caucasian infants' social selections varied as a function of the race of the recipient advantaged by the unfair distributor. Specifically, infants were more likely to select the fair distributor when the unfair recipient advantaged the Asian (versus the Caucasian) recipient. These findings provide evidence that infants select social partners on the basis of prior fair behavior and that infants also take into account the race of distributors and recipients when making their social selections.

No MeSH data available.


Average fair choice scores in Experiment 2 as a function of the race of the recipient advantaged by the unfair actor. *p < 0.05.
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Figure 3: Average fair choice scores in Experiment 2 as a function of the race of the recipient advantaged by the unfair actor. *p < 0.05.

Mentions: We then investigated whether infants’ choices were influenced by the race of the advantaged recipient (i.e., the recipient who receives three toys from the unfair distributor). Overall, there was a significant effect of the recipient who was advantaged (i.e. Asian versus Caucasian) on infants’ selections of the fair distributor, t(32) = 2.00, p = 0.03, d = 0.71. Infants were more likely to select the fair actor when the unfair actor advantaged the Asian recipient, M = 0.59, SE = 0.06, than when the unfair actor advantaged the Caucasian recipient, M = 0.42, SE = 0.07 (Figure 3). A one-sample t-test revealed infants’ selections of the fair actor was marginally above chance (where chance = 0.50) when the unfair actor advantaged the Asian recipient: t(15) = 1.65, p = 0.06. Infants’ selections of the fair actor were not significantly different from chance when the unfair actor advantaged the Caucasian recipient, t(17) = 1.26, p = 0.13. Performance on individual test trials was consistent with this pattern of findings (although binomial tests on each trial were not significant, ps > 0.05, presumably due to lack of power). When the unfair actor advantaged the Asian recipient, 73% of infants selected the fair actor on Trial 1, 58% of infants selected the fair actor on Trial 2, and 57% of infants selected the fair actor on Trial 3. In contrast, when the unfair actor advantaged the Caucasian recipient, 38% of infants selected the fair actor on Trial 1, 35% of infants selected the fair actor on Trial 2, and 47% of infants selected the fair actor on Trial 3.


"I pick you": the impact of fairness and race on infants' selection of social partners.

Burns MP, Sommerville JA - Front Psychol (2014)

Average fair choice scores in Experiment 2 as a function of the race of the recipient advantaged by the unfair actor. *p < 0.05.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3921677&req=5

Figure 3: Average fair choice scores in Experiment 2 as a function of the race of the recipient advantaged by the unfair actor. *p < 0.05.
Mentions: We then investigated whether infants’ choices were influenced by the race of the advantaged recipient (i.e., the recipient who receives three toys from the unfair distributor). Overall, there was a significant effect of the recipient who was advantaged (i.e. Asian versus Caucasian) on infants’ selections of the fair distributor, t(32) = 2.00, p = 0.03, d = 0.71. Infants were more likely to select the fair actor when the unfair actor advantaged the Asian recipient, M = 0.59, SE = 0.06, than when the unfair actor advantaged the Caucasian recipient, M = 0.42, SE = 0.07 (Figure 3). A one-sample t-test revealed infants’ selections of the fair actor was marginally above chance (where chance = 0.50) when the unfair actor advantaged the Asian recipient: t(15) = 1.65, p = 0.06. Infants’ selections of the fair actor were not significantly different from chance when the unfair actor advantaged the Caucasian recipient, t(17) = 1.26, p = 0.13. Performance on individual test trials was consistent with this pattern of findings (although binomial tests on each trial were not significant, ps > 0.05, presumably due to lack of power). When the unfair actor advantaged the Asian recipient, 73% of infants selected the fair actor on Trial 1, 58% of infants selected the fair actor on Trial 2, and 57% of infants selected the fair actor on Trial 3. In contrast, when the unfair actor advantaged the Caucasian recipient, 38% of infants selected the fair actor on Trial 1, 35% of infants selected the fair actor on Trial 2, and 47% of infants selected the fair actor on Trial 3.

Bottom Line: In Experiment 2, when fairness, the race of the distributor, and the race of the recipients were fully crossed, Caucasian infants' social selections varied as a function of the race of the recipient advantaged by the unfair distributor.Specifically, infants were more likely to select the fair distributor when the unfair recipient advantaged the Asian (versus the Caucasian) recipient.These findings provide evidence that infants select social partners on the basis of prior fair behavior and that infants also take into account the race of distributors and recipients when making their social selections.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Washington Seattle, WA, USA.

ABSTRACT
By 15 months of age infants are sensitive to violations of fairness norms as assessed via their enhanced visual attention to unfair versus fair outcomes in violation-of-expectation paradigms. The current study investigated whether 15-month-old infants select social partners on the basis of prior fair versus unfair behavior, and whether infants integrate social selections on the basis of fairness with the race of the distributors and recipients involved in the exchange. Experiment 1 demonstrated that after witnessing one adult distribute toys to two recipients fairly (2:2 distribution), and another adult distribute toys to two recipients unfairly (1:3 distribution), Caucasian infants selected fair over unfair distributors when both distributors were Caucasian; however, this preference was not present when the fair actor was Asian and the unfair actor was Caucasian. In Experiment 2, when fairness, the race of the distributor, and the race of the recipients were fully crossed, Caucasian infants' social selections varied as a function of the race of the recipient advantaged by the unfair distributor. Specifically, infants were more likely to select the fair distributor when the unfair recipient advantaged the Asian (versus the Caucasian) recipient. These findings provide evidence that infants select social partners on the basis of prior fair behavior and that infants also take into account the race of distributors and recipients when making their social selections.

No MeSH data available.