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"I pick you": the impact of fairness and race on infants' selection of social partners.

Burns MP, Sommerville JA - Front Psychol (2014)

Bottom Line: In Experiment 2, when fairness, the race of the distributor, and the race of the recipients were fully crossed, Caucasian infants' social selections varied as a function of the race of the recipient advantaged by the unfair distributor.Specifically, infants were more likely to select the fair distributor when the unfair recipient advantaged the Asian (versus the Caucasian) recipient.These findings provide evidence that infants select social partners on the basis of prior fair behavior and that infants also take into account the race of distributors and recipients when making their social selections.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Washington Seattle, WA, USA.

ABSTRACT
By 15 months of age infants are sensitive to violations of fairness norms as assessed via their enhanced visual attention to unfair versus fair outcomes in violation-of-expectation paradigms. The current study investigated whether 15-month-old infants select social partners on the basis of prior fair versus unfair behavior, and whether infants integrate social selections on the basis of fairness with the race of the distributors and recipients involved in the exchange. Experiment 1 demonstrated that after witnessing one adult distribute toys to two recipients fairly (2:2 distribution), and another adult distribute toys to two recipients unfairly (1:3 distribution), Caucasian infants selected fair over unfair distributors when both distributors were Caucasian; however, this preference was not present when the fair actor was Asian and the unfair actor was Caucasian. In Experiment 2, when fairness, the race of the distributor, and the race of the recipients were fully crossed, Caucasian infants' social selections varied as a function of the race of the recipient advantaged by the unfair distributor. Specifically, infants were more likely to select the fair distributor when the unfair recipient advantaged the Asian (versus the Caucasian) recipient. These findings provide evidence that infants select social partners on the basis of prior fair behavior and that infants also take into account the race of distributors and recipients when making their social selections.

No MeSH data available.


Fair distribution episode (see left column) and unfair distribution episode (see right column). (A) The distributor lifted up a transparent bin containing four toys and said “Wow!” (B) Both recipients simultaneously said “Please” and pushed the two containers toward the distributor. (C) The distributor pretended to distribute toys into the container on her left side (pictured), and then the container on her right side (not pictured). (D) The distributor held up the empty transparent bin and said “All gone!” (E) The distributor gave one container to each recipient saying “here.” (F) The distributor looked down with her eyes closed, and the recipients simultaneously lifted the lids to reveal the number of toys they received.
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Figure 1: Fair distribution episode (see left column) and unfair distribution episode (see right column). (A) The distributor lifted up a transparent bin containing four toys and said “Wow!” (B) Both recipients simultaneously said “Please” and pushed the two containers toward the distributor. (C) The distributor pretended to distribute toys into the container on her left side (pictured), and then the container on her right side (not pictured). (D) The distributor held up the empty transparent bin and said “All gone!” (E) The distributor gave one container to each recipient saying “here.” (F) The distributor looked down with her eyes closed, and the recipients simultaneously lifted the lids to reveal the number of toys they received.

Mentions: In the distribution phase, the distributor lifted up a transparent bin containing four toys and said “Wow” (see Figure 1A). Both recipients simultaneously said “Please” and pushed the two containers toward the distributor (Figure 1B). The distributor took the containers, simultaneously placed them on the floor behind the table, and appeared to distribute toys into each container; the containers were occluded from the infant’s view by the table (Figure 1C). The distributor then held up the now-empty transparent bin, said “All gone” (Figure 1D) and placed the transparent bin on the table. Next, the distributor lifted identical opaque lids within the infant’s view and simultaneously lowered them, pretending to cover the containers. In reality, in order to ensure that distributors were unaware of whether they were acting fairly or unfairly, distributors did not actually distribute the toys; an identical set of containers had been pre-prepared with toy allocations, covered with opaque lids, and hidden behind the table. Then, the distributor lifted the pre-prepared covered containers so they were in view of the infant, gave one container to each recipient saying “here” (Figure 1E), and looked down with her eyes closed (so she remained unaware of the outcome).


"I pick you": the impact of fairness and race on infants' selection of social partners.

Burns MP, Sommerville JA - Front Psychol (2014)

Fair distribution episode (see left column) and unfair distribution episode (see right column). (A) The distributor lifted up a transparent bin containing four toys and said “Wow!” (B) Both recipients simultaneously said “Please” and pushed the two containers toward the distributor. (C) The distributor pretended to distribute toys into the container on her left side (pictured), and then the container on her right side (not pictured). (D) The distributor held up the empty transparent bin and said “All gone!” (E) The distributor gave one container to each recipient saying “here.” (F) The distributor looked down with her eyes closed, and the recipients simultaneously lifted the lids to reveal the number of toys they received.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3921677&req=5

Figure 1: Fair distribution episode (see left column) and unfair distribution episode (see right column). (A) The distributor lifted up a transparent bin containing four toys and said “Wow!” (B) Both recipients simultaneously said “Please” and pushed the two containers toward the distributor. (C) The distributor pretended to distribute toys into the container on her left side (pictured), and then the container on her right side (not pictured). (D) The distributor held up the empty transparent bin and said “All gone!” (E) The distributor gave one container to each recipient saying “here.” (F) The distributor looked down with her eyes closed, and the recipients simultaneously lifted the lids to reveal the number of toys they received.
Mentions: In the distribution phase, the distributor lifted up a transparent bin containing four toys and said “Wow” (see Figure 1A). Both recipients simultaneously said “Please” and pushed the two containers toward the distributor (Figure 1B). The distributor took the containers, simultaneously placed them on the floor behind the table, and appeared to distribute toys into each container; the containers were occluded from the infant’s view by the table (Figure 1C). The distributor then held up the now-empty transparent bin, said “All gone” (Figure 1D) and placed the transparent bin on the table. Next, the distributor lifted identical opaque lids within the infant’s view and simultaneously lowered them, pretending to cover the containers. In reality, in order to ensure that distributors were unaware of whether they were acting fairly or unfairly, distributors did not actually distribute the toys; an identical set of containers had been pre-prepared with toy allocations, covered with opaque lids, and hidden behind the table. Then, the distributor lifted the pre-prepared covered containers so they were in view of the infant, gave one container to each recipient saying “here” (Figure 1E), and looked down with her eyes closed (so she remained unaware of the outcome).

Bottom Line: In Experiment 2, when fairness, the race of the distributor, and the race of the recipients were fully crossed, Caucasian infants' social selections varied as a function of the race of the recipient advantaged by the unfair distributor.Specifically, infants were more likely to select the fair distributor when the unfair recipient advantaged the Asian (versus the Caucasian) recipient.These findings provide evidence that infants select social partners on the basis of prior fair behavior and that infants also take into account the race of distributors and recipients when making their social selections.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Washington Seattle, WA, USA.

ABSTRACT
By 15 months of age infants are sensitive to violations of fairness norms as assessed via their enhanced visual attention to unfair versus fair outcomes in violation-of-expectation paradigms. The current study investigated whether 15-month-old infants select social partners on the basis of prior fair versus unfair behavior, and whether infants integrate social selections on the basis of fairness with the race of the distributors and recipients involved in the exchange. Experiment 1 demonstrated that after witnessing one adult distribute toys to two recipients fairly (2:2 distribution), and another adult distribute toys to two recipients unfairly (1:3 distribution), Caucasian infants selected fair over unfair distributors when both distributors were Caucasian; however, this preference was not present when the fair actor was Asian and the unfair actor was Caucasian. In Experiment 2, when fairness, the race of the distributor, and the race of the recipients were fully crossed, Caucasian infants' social selections varied as a function of the race of the recipient advantaged by the unfair distributor. Specifically, infants were more likely to select the fair distributor when the unfair recipient advantaged the Asian (versus the Caucasian) recipient. These findings provide evidence that infants select social partners on the basis of prior fair behavior and that infants also take into account the race of distributors and recipients when making their social selections.

No MeSH data available.