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Sponge larval settlement cues: the role of microbial biofilms in a warming ocean.

Whalan S, Webster NS - Sci Rep (2014)

Bottom Line: Given the importance of habitat selection by the motile larval phase, understanding settlement choices is critical if we are to successfully predict the population dynamics of sessile adults.Microbial profiling of biofilms revealed different communities according to both age and temperature.Biofilm community composition, as a result of both elevated seawater temperature and biofilm age, contributed to settlement for sponge larvae with markedly higher numbers of larvae settling to biofilms developed over longer periods (10 d) and at temperatures 2-6°C above ambient.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Marine Ecology Research Centre, School of Environment Science & Engineering, Southern Cross University, PO Box 157, Lismore, NSW, 2470, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Microbial biofilms play important roles in initiating settlement of marine invertebrate larvae. Given the importance of habitat selection by the motile larval phase, understanding settlement choices is critical if we are to successfully predict the population dynamics of sessile adults. Marine microbial biofilms show remarkable variability in community composition, often mediated by environmental conditions and biofilm age. To determine if biofilm communities were influenced by the time allowed to establish (age) and/or seawater temperature, we manipulated experimental surfaces to firstly determine biofilm community composition and secondly test larval settlement responses for the abundant coral reef sponge Rhopaloeides odorabile. Microbial profiling of biofilms revealed different communities according to both age and temperature. Biofilm community composition, as a result of both elevated seawater temperature and biofilm age, contributed to settlement for sponge larvae with markedly higher numbers of larvae settling to biofilms developed over longer periods (10 d) and at temperatures 2-6°C above ambient.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Interaction plot of estimated marginal means calculated for temperature at each level of biofilm age.Insert legend represents temperatures (°C).
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f2: Interaction plot of estimated marginal means calculated for temperature at each level of biofilm age.Insert legend represents temperatures (°C).

Mentions: Larval settlement was completed by 42 hours. Age of biofilm showed a significant main effect on settlement (Fig. 1: F = 3, 32 13.42, p < 0.01) as did temperature (Fig. 1; F = 3, 32 5.46, p < 0.01). However, a significant interaction between biofilm age and temperature drove larval settlement responses (Fig. 1 & 2; F = 9, 32 2.30, p = 0.04). Of interest in the interaction was the notable trend at 28°C where marginal means remained relatively consistent over all levels of biofilm age. Settlement in treatments where biofilms were developed at 28°C for 10 d was lower in comparison to 30°C, 32°C and 34°C (Fig. 2). Indeed, the effect of temperature on settlement was different at every level of biofilm age for 28°C, particularly from 24–48 h and from 48 h-10 d. Moreover, the effect of increasing age of biofilm was reflected with an increasing effect of temperature, particularly from 30–34°C.


Sponge larval settlement cues: the role of microbial biofilms in a warming ocean.

Whalan S, Webster NS - Sci Rep (2014)

Interaction plot of estimated marginal means calculated for temperature at each level of biofilm age.Insert legend represents temperatures (°C).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3921630&req=5

f2: Interaction plot of estimated marginal means calculated for temperature at each level of biofilm age.Insert legend represents temperatures (°C).
Mentions: Larval settlement was completed by 42 hours. Age of biofilm showed a significant main effect on settlement (Fig. 1: F = 3, 32 13.42, p < 0.01) as did temperature (Fig. 1; F = 3, 32 5.46, p < 0.01). However, a significant interaction between biofilm age and temperature drove larval settlement responses (Fig. 1 & 2; F = 9, 32 2.30, p = 0.04). Of interest in the interaction was the notable trend at 28°C where marginal means remained relatively consistent over all levels of biofilm age. Settlement in treatments where biofilms were developed at 28°C for 10 d was lower in comparison to 30°C, 32°C and 34°C (Fig. 2). Indeed, the effect of temperature on settlement was different at every level of biofilm age for 28°C, particularly from 24–48 h and from 48 h-10 d. Moreover, the effect of increasing age of biofilm was reflected with an increasing effect of temperature, particularly from 30–34°C.

Bottom Line: Given the importance of habitat selection by the motile larval phase, understanding settlement choices is critical if we are to successfully predict the population dynamics of sessile adults.Microbial profiling of biofilms revealed different communities according to both age and temperature.Biofilm community composition, as a result of both elevated seawater temperature and biofilm age, contributed to settlement for sponge larvae with markedly higher numbers of larvae settling to biofilms developed over longer periods (10 d) and at temperatures 2-6°C above ambient.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Marine Ecology Research Centre, School of Environment Science & Engineering, Southern Cross University, PO Box 157, Lismore, NSW, 2470, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Microbial biofilms play important roles in initiating settlement of marine invertebrate larvae. Given the importance of habitat selection by the motile larval phase, understanding settlement choices is critical if we are to successfully predict the population dynamics of sessile adults. Marine microbial biofilms show remarkable variability in community composition, often mediated by environmental conditions and biofilm age. To determine if biofilm communities were influenced by the time allowed to establish (age) and/or seawater temperature, we manipulated experimental surfaces to firstly determine biofilm community composition and secondly test larval settlement responses for the abundant coral reef sponge Rhopaloeides odorabile. Microbial profiling of biofilms revealed different communities according to both age and temperature. Biofilm community composition, as a result of both elevated seawater temperature and biofilm age, contributed to settlement for sponge larvae with markedly higher numbers of larvae settling to biofilms developed over longer periods (10 d) and at temperatures 2-6°C above ambient.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus