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Evolutionary diversifications of plants on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

Wen J, Zhang JQ, Nie ZL, Zhong Y, Sun H - Front Genet (2014)

Bottom Line: Phylogenetic, phylogeographic, and ecological studies support plant diversifications on the QTP through multiple mechanisms such as allopatric speciation via geographic isolation, climatic oscillations and divergences, pollinator-mediated isolation, diploid hybridization and introgression, and allopolyploidy.Nevertheless, much work is needed toward understanding the evolutionary mechanisms of plant diversifications on the QTP.Well-sampled biogeographic analyses of the QTP plants in the broad framework of the Northern Hemisphere as well as the Southern Hemisphere are still relatively few and should be encouraged in the next decade.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Botany, National Museum of Natural History, MRC 166, Smithsonian Institution Washington, DC, USA.

ABSTRACT
The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) is the highest and one of the most extensive plateaus in the world. Phylogenetic, phylogeographic, and ecological studies support plant diversifications on the QTP through multiple mechanisms such as allopatric speciation via geographic isolation, climatic oscillations and divergences, pollinator-mediated isolation, diploid hybridization and introgression, and allopolyploidy. These mechanisms have driven spectacular radiations and/or species diversifications in various groups of plants such as Pedicularis L., Saussurea DC., Rhododendron L., Primula L., Meconopsis Vig., Rhodiola L., and many lineages of gymnosperms. Nevertheless, much work is needed toward understanding the evolutionary mechanisms of plant diversifications on the QTP. Well-sampled biogeographic analyses of the QTP plants in the broad framework of the Northern Hemisphere as well as the Southern Hemisphere are still relatively few and should be encouraged in the next decade. This paper reviews recent evidence from phylogenetic and biogeographic studies in plants, in the context of rapid radiations, mechanisms of species diversifications on the QTP, and the biogeographic significance of the QTP in the broader context of both the Northern and Southern Hemisphere biogeography. Integrative multidimensional analyses of phylogeny, morphological innovations, geography, ecology, development, species interactions and diversifications, and geology are needed and should shed insights into the patterns of evolutionary assembly and radiations in this fascinating region.

No MeSH data available.


Geographic location of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (A) and representative plant groups: (B)Rhododendron roxieanum Forrest ex W.W.Sm.; (C)Rhododendron wardii W.W.Sm.; (D)Rheum nobile Hook.f. & Thoms., showing “glasshouse-like” morphology; (E)Saussurea laniceps Hand.-Mazz., showing “snow-ball” morphology;(F)Meconopsis betonicifolia Franch.; (G)Pedicularis siphonantha D.Don var. delavayi (Franch. ex Maxim.) P.C.Tsoong; and (H)Rhodiolaalsia (Fröd.) Fu (photo credit: B,C,G by H. Sun; D,F by J. Wen; E by B. Song; and H by J. Q. Zhang).
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Figure 1: Geographic location of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (A) and representative plant groups: (B)Rhododendron roxieanum Forrest ex W.W.Sm.; (C)Rhododendron wardii W.W.Sm.; (D)Rheum nobile Hook.f. & Thoms., showing “glasshouse-like” morphology; (E)Saussurea laniceps Hand.-Mazz., showing “snow-ball” morphology;(F)Meconopsis betonicifolia Franch.; (G)Pedicularis siphonantha D.Don var. delavayi (Franch. ex Maxim.) P.C.Tsoong; and (H)Rhodiolaalsia (Fröd.) Fu (photo credit: B,C,G by H. Sun; D,F by J. Wen; E by B. Song; and H by J. Q. Zhang).

Mentions: The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) is the highest and one of the most extensive plateaus in the world, covering an area of 2.5 × 106 km2 with an average elevation of more than 4000 m (Zhang et al., 2002; Geng et al., 2009). The QTP is generally delimited by the Qilian and the Kunlun Mountains in the north, the Himalayan Mountains in the south, the Karakorum Range of Pakistan in the west, and the Hengduan Mountains in the east (Figure 1A; Wu et al., 1995; Turner et al., 1996; Zhang et al., 2002). The uplifts of the plateau were driven by the collision of the Indian plate with the Eurasian plate, which began at ca. 50 million years ago (mya; Coleman and Hodges, 1995; Rowley and Currie, 2006; Royden et al., 2008). Since the early Miocene, extensive uplifts of the QTP occurred in at least four major periods: 25–17, 15–13, 8–7, and 3.5–1.6 mya (see Harrison et al., 1992; Li et al., 1995; Shi et al., 1998; Guo et al., 2002; Spicer et al., 2003). The plateau harbors more than 12,000 species of vascular plants in 1500 genera, with the Hengduan–Himalayan region of the eastern and southern parts of the QTP possessing exceptional species richness and a high level of endemism (Wu, 1988; Li and Li, 1993), especially for alpine elements (Wu et al., 1995; Liu et al., 2000). Nevertheless a few recent studies examined the evolution of unique endemic plants and have found that several monotypic plant genera in the alpine regions of the QTP are nested within larger genera (see Friesen et al., 2000; Tian et al., 2011; Nie et al., 2013).


Evolutionary diversifications of plants on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

Wen J, Zhang JQ, Nie ZL, Zhong Y, Sun H - Front Genet (2014)

Geographic location of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (A) and representative plant groups: (B)Rhododendron roxieanum Forrest ex W.W.Sm.; (C)Rhododendron wardii W.W.Sm.; (D)Rheum nobile Hook.f. & Thoms., showing “glasshouse-like” morphology; (E)Saussurea laniceps Hand.-Mazz., showing “snow-ball” morphology;(F)Meconopsis betonicifolia Franch.; (G)Pedicularis siphonantha D.Don var. delavayi (Franch. ex Maxim.) P.C.Tsoong; and (H)Rhodiolaalsia (Fröd.) Fu (photo credit: B,C,G by H. Sun; D,F by J. Wen; E by B. Song; and H by J. Q. Zhang).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Figure 1: Geographic location of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (A) and representative plant groups: (B)Rhododendron roxieanum Forrest ex W.W.Sm.; (C)Rhododendron wardii W.W.Sm.; (D)Rheum nobile Hook.f. & Thoms., showing “glasshouse-like” morphology; (E)Saussurea laniceps Hand.-Mazz., showing “snow-ball” morphology;(F)Meconopsis betonicifolia Franch.; (G)Pedicularis siphonantha D.Don var. delavayi (Franch. ex Maxim.) P.C.Tsoong; and (H)Rhodiolaalsia (Fröd.) Fu (photo credit: B,C,G by H. Sun; D,F by J. Wen; E by B. Song; and H by J. Q. Zhang).
Mentions: The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) is the highest and one of the most extensive plateaus in the world, covering an area of 2.5 × 106 km2 with an average elevation of more than 4000 m (Zhang et al., 2002; Geng et al., 2009). The QTP is generally delimited by the Qilian and the Kunlun Mountains in the north, the Himalayan Mountains in the south, the Karakorum Range of Pakistan in the west, and the Hengduan Mountains in the east (Figure 1A; Wu et al., 1995; Turner et al., 1996; Zhang et al., 2002). The uplifts of the plateau were driven by the collision of the Indian plate with the Eurasian plate, which began at ca. 50 million years ago (mya; Coleman and Hodges, 1995; Rowley and Currie, 2006; Royden et al., 2008). Since the early Miocene, extensive uplifts of the QTP occurred in at least four major periods: 25–17, 15–13, 8–7, and 3.5–1.6 mya (see Harrison et al., 1992; Li et al., 1995; Shi et al., 1998; Guo et al., 2002; Spicer et al., 2003). The plateau harbors more than 12,000 species of vascular plants in 1500 genera, with the Hengduan–Himalayan region of the eastern and southern parts of the QTP possessing exceptional species richness and a high level of endemism (Wu, 1988; Li and Li, 1993), especially for alpine elements (Wu et al., 1995; Liu et al., 2000). Nevertheless a few recent studies examined the evolution of unique endemic plants and have found that several monotypic plant genera in the alpine regions of the QTP are nested within larger genera (see Friesen et al., 2000; Tian et al., 2011; Nie et al., 2013).

Bottom Line: Phylogenetic, phylogeographic, and ecological studies support plant diversifications on the QTP through multiple mechanisms such as allopatric speciation via geographic isolation, climatic oscillations and divergences, pollinator-mediated isolation, diploid hybridization and introgression, and allopolyploidy.Nevertheless, much work is needed toward understanding the evolutionary mechanisms of plant diversifications on the QTP.Well-sampled biogeographic analyses of the QTP plants in the broad framework of the Northern Hemisphere as well as the Southern Hemisphere are still relatively few and should be encouraged in the next decade.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Botany, National Museum of Natural History, MRC 166, Smithsonian Institution Washington, DC, USA.

ABSTRACT
The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) is the highest and one of the most extensive plateaus in the world. Phylogenetic, phylogeographic, and ecological studies support plant diversifications on the QTP through multiple mechanisms such as allopatric speciation via geographic isolation, climatic oscillations and divergences, pollinator-mediated isolation, diploid hybridization and introgression, and allopolyploidy. These mechanisms have driven spectacular radiations and/or species diversifications in various groups of plants such as Pedicularis L., Saussurea DC., Rhododendron L., Primula L., Meconopsis Vig., Rhodiola L., and many lineages of gymnosperms. Nevertheless, much work is needed toward understanding the evolutionary mechanisms of plant diversifications on the QTP. Well-sampled biogeographic analyses of the QTP plants in the broad framework of the Northern Hemisphere as well as the Southern Hemisphere are still relatively few and should be encouraged in the next decade. This paper reviews recent evidence from phylogenetic and biogeographic studies in plants, in the context of rapid radiations, mechanisms of species diversifications on the QTP, and the biogeographic significance of the QTP in the broader context of both the Northern and Southern Hemisphere biogeography. Integrative multidimensional analyses of phylogeny, morphological innovations, geography, ecology, development, species interactions and diversifications, and geology are needed and should shed insights into the patterns of evolutionary assembly and radiations in this fascinating region.

No MeSH data available.