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Advert saliency distracts children's visual attention during task-oriented internet use.

Holmberg N, Sandberg H, Holmqvist K - Front Psychol (2014)

Bottom Line: The results provide evidence about cognitive and behavioral distraction effects in children's task-oriented internet use caused by visual saliency in online adverts.The experiment suggests that children to some extent are able to compensate for behavioral effects caused by distracting visual stimuli when solving prospective memory tasks.Suggestions are given for further research into the interdiciplinary area between media research and cognitive science.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Communication and Media, Lund University Lund, Sweden ; Lund University Humanities Lab, Lund University Lund, Sweden.

ABSTRACT
The general research question of the present study was to assess the impact of visually salient online adverts on children's task-oriented internet use. In order to answer this question, an experimental study was constructed in which 9- and 12-year-old Swedish children were asked to solve a number of tasks while interacting with a mockup website. In each trial, web adverts in several saliency conditions were presented. By both measuring children's task accuracy, as well as the visual processing involved in solving these tasks, this study allows us to infer how two types of visual saliency affect children's attentional behavior, and whether such behavioral effects also impacts their task performance. Analyses show that low-level visual features and task relevance in online adverts have different effects on performance measures and process measures respectively. Whereas task performance is stable with regard to several advert saliency conditions, a marked effect is seen on children's gaze behavior. On the other hand, task performance is shown to be more sensitive to individual differences such as age, gender and level of gaze control. The results provide evidence about cognitive and behavioral distraction effects in children's task-oriented internet use caused by visual saliency in online adverts. The experiment suggests that children to some extent are able to compensate for behavioral effects caused by distracting visual stimuli when solving prospective memory tasks. Suggestions are given for further research into the interdiciplinary area between media research and cognitive science.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

In the task relevance conditions, the pictorial content of the adverts was manipulated to different degrees of task relevance. On the left hand side, an irrelevant advert in the control condition is shown. In the middle and on the right hand side, advert content in the low task relevance and high task relevance conditions is shown respectively. In the latter condition, the advert were always based on the target image of the task. (Reprinted with permission.)
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Figure 2: In the task relevance conditions, the pictorial content of the adverts was manipulated to different degrees of task relevance. On the left hand side, an irrelevant advert in the control condition is shown. In the middle and on the right hand side, advert content in the low task relevance and high task relevance conditions is shown respectively. In the latter condition, the advert were always based on the target image of the task. (Reprinted with permission.)

Mentions: On the second image selection web page, an online advert was presented according to 9 saliency conditions. The low-level saliency conditions were operationalized as two levels of advert onset speed, which were implemented as animated GIF images. Each GIF animation consisted of a number of transitional frames between the advert image and a blank white image, and was presented at a frame rate of 10 fps. Smooth advert onset was created using 50 transitional frames and a 1000 ms pause, while abrupt onset speed was created using 2 transitional frames and a 3000 ms pause. The GIF animations were then looped in order to present the low-level saliency conditions continuously on the web pages during each trial. The onset speed manipulation gave the visual impression that the adverts disappeared and then reappeared softly or abruptly on the web pages (Supplementary Material). The onset speed factor also included a control condition, consisting of the static advert images. These low-level saliency conditions were then combined with three types of task relevance including a control condition, producing a total of 3 × 3 advert saliency conditions. The task relevance conditions were operationalized as two levels of task relevant pictorial content in adverts. Adverts in the low task relevance condition depicted system dialog windows and website login windows, while adverts in the high task relevance condition depicted mockup adverts that closely resembled the target pictures in tasks (Figure 2). The task relevance factor also included a control condition depicting irrelevant inanimate objects.


Advert saliency distracts children's visual attention during task-oriented internet use.

Holmberg N, Sandberg H, Holmqvist K - Front Psychol (2014)

In the task relevance conditions, the pictorial content of the adverts was manipulated to different degrees of task relevance. On the left hand side, an irrelevant advert in the control condition is shown. In the middle and on the right hand side, advert content in the low task relevance and high task relevance conditions is shown respectively. In the latter condition, the advert were always based on the target image of the task. (Reprinted with permission.)
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3921552&req=5

Figure 2: In the task relevance conditions, the pictorial content of the adverts was manipulated to different degrees of task relevance. On the left hand side, an irrelevant advert in the control condition is shown. In the middle and on the right hand side, advert content in the low task relevance and high task relevance conditions is shown respectively. In the latter condition, the advert were always based on the target image of the task. (Reprinted with permission.)
Mentions: On the second image selection web page, an online advert was presented according to 9 saliency conditions. The low-level saliency conditions were operationalized as two levels of advert onset speed, which were implemented as animated GIF images. Each GIF animation consisted of a number of transitional frames between the advert image and a blank white image, and was presented at a frame rate of 10 fps. Smooth advert onset was created using 50 transitional frames and a 1000 ms pause, while abrupt onset speed was created using 2 transitional frames and a 3000 ms pause. The GIF animations were then looped in order to present the low-level saliency conditions continuously on the web pages during each trial. The onset speed manipulation gave the visual impression that the adverts disappeared and then reappeared softly or abruptly on the web pages (Supplementary Material). The onset speed factor also included a control condition, consisting of the static advert images. These low-level saliency conditions were then combined with three types of task relevance including a control condition, producing a total of 3 × 3 advert saliency conditions. The task relevance conditions were operationalized as two levels of task relevant pictorial content in adverts. Adverts in the low task relevance condition depicted system dialog windows and website login windows, while adverts in the high task relevance condition depicted mockup adverts that closely resembled the target pictures in tasks (Figure 2). The task relevance factor also included a control condition depicting irrelevant inanimate objects.

Bottom Line: The results provide evidence about cognitive and behavioral distraction effects in children's task-oriented internet use caused by visual saliency in online adverts.The experiment suggests that children to some extent are able to compensate for behavioral effects caused by distracting visual stimuli when solving prospective memory tasks.Suggestions are given for further research into the interdiciplinary area between media research and cognitive science.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Communication and Media, Lund University Lund, Sweden ; Lund University Humanities Lab, Lund University Lund, Sweden.

ABSTRACT
The general research question of the present study was to assess the impact of visually salient online adverts on children's task-oriented internet use. In order to answer this question, an experimental study was constructed in which 9- and 12-year-old Swedish children were asked to solve a number of tasks while interacting with a mockup website. In each trial, web adverts in several saliency conditions were presented. By both measuring children's task accuracy, as well as the visual processing involved in solving these tasks, this study allows us to infer how two types of visual saliency affect children's attentional behavior, and whether such behavioral effects also impacts their task performance. Analyses show that low-level visual features and task relevance in online adverts have different effects on performance measures and process measures respectively. Whereas task performance is stable with regard to several advert saliency conditions, a marked effect is seen on children's gaze behavior. On the other hand, task performance is shown to be more sensitive to individual differences such as age, gender and level of gaze control. The results provide evidence about cognitive and behavioral distraction effects in children's task-oriented internet use caused by visual saliency in online adverts. The experiment suggests that children to some extent are able to compensate for behavioral effects caused by distracting visual stimuli when solving prospective memory tasks. Suggestions are given for further research into the interdiciplinary area between media research and cognitive science.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus