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Possible role of gap junction intercellular channels and connexin 43 in satellite glial cells (SGCs) for preservation of human spiral ganglion neurons : A comparative study with clinical implications.

Liu W, Glueckert R, Linthicum FH, Rieger G, Blumer M, Bitsche M, Pechriggl E, Rask-Andersen H, Schrott-Fischer A - Cell Tissue Res. (2013)

Bottom Line: GJs and Cx43 expression has been recognized in satellite glial cells (SGCs) in non-myelinating sensory ganglia including the human SG.In man, SG neurons can survive as mono-polar or "amputated" cells with unbroken central projections following dendrite degeneration and consolidation of the dendrite pole.Cx43-mediated GJ signaling between SGCs is believed to play a key role in this "healing" process and could explain the unique preservation of human SG neurons and the persistence of cochlear implant function.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Surgical Sciences, Section of Otolaryngology, Uppsala University Hospital, 751 85, Uppsala, Sweden, lwoo24@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Human spiral ganglion (SG) neurons show remarkable survival properties and maintain electric excitability for a long time after complete deafness and even separation from the organ of Corti, features essential for cochlear implantation. Here, we analyze and compare the localization and distribution of gap junction (GJ) intercellular channels and connexin 43 (Cx43) in cells surrounding SG cell bodies in man and guinea pig by using transmission electron microscopy and confocal immunohistochemistry. GJs and Cx43 expression has been recognized in satellite glial cells (SGCs) in non-myelinating sensory ganglia including the human SG. In man, SG neurons can survive as mono-polar or "amputated" cells with unbroken central projections following dendrite degeneration and consolidation of the dendrite pole. Cx43-mediated GJ signaling between SGCs is believed to play a key role in this "healing" process and could explain the unique preservation of human SG neurons and the persistence of cochlear implant function.

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TEM of Type I spiral ganglion neuron in guinea pig cochlea. Boxed areas in a are shown at higher magnification in b, c (SC Schwann cell, SGN spiral ganglion neuron). The surrounding Schwann cell forms several tight myelin layers (a) followed by two or more (depending on the site at the neuron) loosely arranged membrane sheets (b). Desmosomal-like contacts (arrow in c) can frequently be seen, whereas typical GJ-like structures are missing. Bars 2 μm (a), 500 nm (b), 500 nm (c)
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Fig5: TEM of Type I spiral ganglion neuron in guinea pig cochlea. Boxed areas in a are shown at higher magnification in b, c (SC Schwann cell, SGN spiral ganglion neuron). The surrounding Schwann cell forms several tight myelin layers (a) followed by two or more (depending on the site at the neuron) loosely arranged membrane sheets (b). Desmosomal-like contacts (arrow in c) can frequently be seen, whereas typical GJ-like structures are missing. Bars 2 μm (a), 500 nm (b), 500 nm (c)

Mentions: In the guinea pig, the number of SCs that make up the sheath increases proportionately with the volume of the neuron that it surrounds. SGN in guinea pig are smaller and so fewer SCs surround an SGN. In guinea pig and cat, we mostly found only one nucleus sitting within the soma (not shown). TEM of SGNs in the guinea pig cochlea is shown in Fig. 5. The surrounding SCs form several tight myelin layers and desmosomal-like contacts can frequently be seen, whereas typical GJ-like structures are missing.Fig. 5


Possible role of gap junction intercellular channels and connexin 43 in satellite glial cells (SGCs) for preservation of human spiral ganglion neurons : A comparative study with clinical implications.

Liu W, Glueckert R, Linthicum FH, Rieger G, Blumer M, Bitsche M, Pechriggl E, Rask-Andersen H, Schrott-Fischer A - Cell Tissue Res. (2013)

TEM of Type I spiral ganglion neuron in guinea pig cochlea. Boxed areas in a are shown at higher magnification in b, c (SC Schwann cell, SGN spiral ganglion neuron). The surrounding Schwann cell forms several tight myelin layers (a) followed by two or more (depending on the site at the neuron) loosely arranged membrane sheets (b). Desmosomal-like contacts (arrow in c) can frequently be seen, whereas typical GJ-like structures are missing. Bars 2 μm (a), 500 nm (b), 500 nm (c)
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3921454&req=5

Fig5: TEM of Type I spiral ganglion neuron in guinea pig cochlea. Boxed areas in a are shown at higher magnification in b, c (SC Schwann cell, SGN spiral ganglion neuron). The surrounding Schwann cell forms several tight myelin layers (a) followed by two or more (depending on the site at the neuron) loosely arranged membrane sheets (b). Desmosomal-like contacts (arrow in c) can frequently be seen, whereas typical GJ-like structures are missing. Bars 2 μm (a), 500 nm (b), 500 nm (c)
Mentions: In the guinea pig, the number of SCs that make up the sheath increases proportionately with the volume of the neuron that it surrounds. SGN in guinea pig are smaller and so fewer SCs surround an SGN. In guinea pig and cat, we mostly found only one nucleus sitting within the soma (not shown). TEM of SGNs in the guinea pig cochlea is shown in Fig. 5. The surrounding SCs form several tight myelin layers and desmosomal-like contacts can frequently be seen, whereas typical GJ-like structures are missing.Fig. 5

Bottom Line: GJs and Cx43 expression has been recognized in satellite glial cells (SGCs) in non-myelinating sensory ganglia including the human SG.In man, SG neurons can survive as mono-polar or "amputated" cells with unbroken central projections following dendrite degeneration and consolidation of the dendrite pole.Cx43-mediated GJ signaling between SGCs is believed to play a key role in this "healing" process and could explain the unique preservation of human SG neurons and the persistence of cochlear implant function.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Surgical Sciences, Section of Otolaryngology, Uppsala University Hospital, 751 85, Uppsala, Sweden, lwoo24@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Human spiral ganglion (SG) neurons show remarkable survival properties and maintain electric excitability for a long time after complete deafness and even separation from the organ of Corti, features essential for cochlear implantation. Here, we analyze and compare the localization and distribution of gap junction (GJ) intercellular channels and connexin 43 (Cx43) in cells surrounding SG cell bodies in man and guinea pig by using transmission electron microscopy and confocal immunohistochemistry. GJs and Cx43 expression has been recognized in satellite glial cells (SGCs) in non-myelinating sensory ganglia including the human SG. In man, SG neurons can survive as mono-polar or "amputated" cells with unbroken central projections following dendrite degeneration and consolidation of the dendrite pole. Cx43-mediated GJ signaling between SGCs is believed to play a key role in this "healing" process and could explain the unique preservation of human SG neurons and the persistence of cochlear implant function.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus