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Possible role of gap junction intercellular channels and connexin 43 in satellite glial cells (SGCs) for preservation of human spiral ganglion neurons : A comparative study with clinical implications.

Liu W, Glueckert R, Linthicum FH, Rieger G, Blumer M, Bitsche M, Pechriggl E, Rask-Andersen H, Schrott-Fischer A - Cell Tissue Res. (2013)

Bottom Line: GJs and Cx43 expression has been recognized in satellite glial cells (SGCs) in non-myelinating sensory ganglia including the human SG.In man, SG neurons can survive as mono-polar or "amputated" cells with unbroken central projections following dendrite degeneration and consolidation of the dendrite pole.Cx43-mediated GJ signaling between SGCs is believed to play a key role in this "healing" process and could explain the unique preservation of human SG neurons and the persistence of cochlear implant function.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Surgical Sciences, Section of Otolaryngology, Uppsala University Hospital, 751 85, Uppsala, Sweden, lwoo24@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Human spiral ganglion (SG) neurons show remarkable survival properties and maintain electric excitability for a long time after complete deafness and even separation from the organ of Corti, features essential for cochlear implantation. Here, we analyze and compare the localization and distribution of gap junction (GJ) intercellular channels and connexin 43 (Cx43) in cells surrounding SG cell bodies in man and guinea pig by using transmission electron microscopy and confocal immunohistochemistry. GJs and Cx43 expression has been recognized in satellite glial cells (SGCs) in non-myelinating sensory ganglia including the human SG. In man, SG neurons can survive as mono-polar or "amputated" cells with unbroken central projections following dendrite degeneration and consolidation of the dendrite pole. Cx43-mediated GJ signaling between SGCs is believed to play a key role in this "healing" process and could explain the unique preservation of human SG neurons and the persistence of cochlear implant function.

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Spiral ganglion mono-polar cells in deafness and satellite cell gap junctions (GJ). a Celloidin section showing SG in Rosenthal’s canal—basal turn in a female, aged 52 at death. She had mumps at age 2 and was deaf thereafter. The histology shows cochlear and saccular degeneration with no structures remaining in the cochlea except for the spiral ligament and 12,000 mono-polar ganglion cells (no dendrites). The vascular supply is normal. Note the physical relationship between the neural perikarya and blood vessels (arrows in inset). b Graphic illustration of two human mono-polar or “amputated” SG cells with surrounding SGCs (red) together with results from immunohistochemistry (#TrkB tyrosine kinase B receptor, BDNF brain-derived neurotrophic factor, nNOS nitric-oxide synthase, GFL GDNF family ligand, C-ret* GFL receptor, GFRalpha* GDNF family receptor alpha, NTRN* neurturin, hSGNs human spiral ganglion cells, SGCs satellite glial cells, GDNF glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor, **Cx30 connexin 30, **Cx36 connexin 36, P75NTR§ P75 neurotrophin receptor). c, d TEM of human SGN cell bodies surrounded by SGCs. GJs are seen between SGCs (arrows). Framed area in c is shown in higher magnification in d. *See Liu and Rask-Andersen (2013); #Liu et al. (2011b); **Liu et al. (2009); §Liu et al. (2012); Voltage-gated ion channels have not been verified in human SG. Bars 30 μm (a), 2 μm (c), 200 nm (d)
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Fig4: Spiral ganglion mono-polar cells in deafness and satellite cell gap junctions (GJ). a Celloidin section showing SG in Rosenthal’s canal—basal turn in a female, aged 52 at death. She had mumps at age 2 and was deaf thereafter. The histology shows cochlear and saccular degeneration with no structures remaining in the cochlea except for the spiral ligament and 12,000 mono-polar ganglion cells (no dendrites). The vascular supply is normal. Note the physical relationship between the neural perikarya and blood vessels (arrows in inset). b Graphic illustration of two human mono-polar or “amputated” SG cells with surrounding SGCs (red) together with results from immunohistochemistry (#TrkB tyrosine kinase B receptor, BDNF brain-derived neurotrophic factor, nNOS nitric-oxide synthase, GFL GDNF family ligand, C-ret* GFL receptor, GFRalpha* GDNF family receptor alpha, NTRN* neurturin, hSGNs human spiral ganglion cells, SGCs satellite glial cells, GDNF glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor, **Cx30 connexin 30, **Cx36 connexin 36, P75NTR§ P75 neurotrophin receptor). c, d TEM of human SGN cell bodies surrounded by SGCs. GJs are seen between SGCs (arrows). Framed area in c is shown in higher magnification in d. *See Liu and Rask-Andersen (2013); #Liu et al. (2011b); **Liu et al. (2009); §Liu et al. (2012); Voltage-gated ion channels have not been verified in human SG. Bars 30 μm (a), 2 μm (c), 200 nm (d)

Mentions: TEM analyses showed the presence of GJs between SGCs surrounding the Type I neurons. Our findings indicated that GJs existed both between SGCs surrounding the same Type I neuron and between neighboring SGNs (Fig. 4c, d). They had a length of 4–500 nm and the intercellular distance approximated 4 nm between adjoining cells. At times, the SGCs were foliated and we could not establish with certainty whether the GJs were located between different SGCs or between the foliated leaflets of the same SGC.Fig. 4


Possible role of gap junction intercellular channels and connexin 43 in satellite glial cells (SGCs) for preservation of human spiral ganglion neurons : A comparative study with clinical implications.

Liu W, Glueckert R, Linthicum FH, Rieger G, Blumer M, Bitsche M, Pechriggl E, Rask-Andersen H, Schrott-Fischer A - Cell Tissue Res. (2013)

Spiral ganglion mono-polar cells in deafness and satellite cell gap junctions (GJ). a Celloidin section showing SG in Rosenthal’s canal—basal turn in a female, aged 52 at death. She had mumps at age 2 and was deaf thereafter. The histology shows cochlear and saccular degeneration with no structures remaining in the cochlea except for the spiral ligament and 12,000 mono-polar ganglion cells (no dendrites). The vascular supply is normal. Note the physical relationship between the neural perikarya and blood vessels (arrows in inset). b Graphic illustration of two human mono-polar or “amputated” SG cells with surrounding SGCs (red) together with results from immunohistochemistry (#TrkB tyrosine kinase B receptor, BDNF brain-derived neurotrophic factor, nNOS nitric-oxide synthase, GFL GDNF family ligand, C-ret* GFL receptor, GFRalpha* GDNF family receptor alpha, NTRN* neurturin, hSGNs human spiral ganglion cells, SGCs satellite glial cells, GDNF glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor, **Cx30 connexin 30, **Cx36 connexin 36, P75NTR§ P75 neurotrophin receptor). c, d TEM of human SGN cell bodies surrounded by SGCs. GJs are seen between SGCs (arrows). Framed area in c is shown in higher magnification in d. *See Liu and Rask-Andersen (2013); #Liu et al. (2011b); **Liu et al. (2009); §Liu et al. (2012); Voltage-gated ion channels have not been verified in human SG. Bars 30 μm (a), 2 μm (c), 200 nm (d)
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Fig4: Spiral ganglion mono-polar cells in deafness and satellite cell gap junctions (GJ). a Celloidin section showing SG in Rosenthal’s canal—basal turn in a female, aged 52 at death. She had mumps at age 2 and was deaf thereafter. The histology shows cochlear and saccular degeneration with no structures remaining in the cochlea except for the spiral ligament and 12,000 mono-polar ganglion cells (no dendrites). The vascular supply is normal. Note the physical relationship between the neural perikarya and blood vessels (arrows in inset). b Graphic illustration of two human mono-polar or “amputated” SG cells with surrounding SGCs (red) together with results from immunohistochemistry (#TrkB tyrosine kinase B receptor, BDNF brain-derived neurotrophic factor, nNOS nitric-oxide synthase, GFL GDNF family ligand, C-ret* GFL receptor, GFRalpha* GDNF family receptor alpha, NTRN* neurturin, hSGNs human spiral ganglion cells, SGCs satellite glial cells, GDNF glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor, **Cx30 connexin 30, **Cx36 connexin 36, P75NTR§ P75 neurotrophin receptor). c, d TEM of human SGN cell bodies surrounded by SGCs. GJs are seen between SGCs (arrows). Framed area in c is shown in higher magnification in d. *See Liu and Rask-Andersen (2013); #Liu et al. (2011b); **Liu et al. (2009); §Liu et al. (2012); Voltage-gated ion channels have not been verified in human SG. Bars 30 μm (a), 2 μm (c), 200 nm (d)
Mentions: TEM analyses showed the presence of GJs between SGCs surrounding the Type I neurons. Our findings indicated that GJs existed both between SGCs surrounding the same Type I neuron and between neighboring SGNs (Fig. 4c, d). They had a length of 4–500 nm and the intercellular distance approximated 4 nm between adjoining cells. At times, the SGCs were foliated and we could not establish with certainty whether the GJs were located between different SGCs or between the foliated leaflets of the same SGC.Fig. 4

Bottom Line: GJs and Cx43 expression has been recognized in satellite glial cells (SGCs) in non-myelinating sensory ganglia including the human SG.In man, SG neurons can survive as mono-polar or "amputated" cells with unbroken central projections following dendrite degeneration and consolidation of the dendrite pole.Cx43-mediated GJ signaling between SGCs is believed to play a key role in this "healing" process and could explain the unique preservation of human SG neurons and the persistence of cochlear implant function.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Surgical Sciences, Section of Otolaryngology, Uppsala University Hospital, 751 85, Uppsala, Sweden, lwoo24@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Human spiral ganglion (SG) neurons show remarkable survival properties and maintain electric excitability for a long time after complete deafness and even separation from the organ of Corti, features essential for cochlear implantation. Here, we analyze and compare the localization and distribution of gap junction (GJ) intercellular channels and connexin 43 (Cx43) in cells surrounding SG cell bodies in man and guinea pig by using transmission electron microscopy and confocal immunohistochemistry. GJs and Cx43 expression has been recognized in satellite glial cells (SGCs) in non-myelinating sensory ganglia including the human SG. In man, SG neurons can survive as mono-polar or "amputated" cells with unbroken central projections following dendrite degeneration and consolidation of the dendrite pole. Cx43-mediated GJ signaling between SGCs is believed to play a key role in this "healing" process and could explain the unique preservation of human SG neurons and the persistence of cochlear implant function.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus