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Possible role of gap junction intercellular channels and connexin 43 in satellite glial cells (SGCs) for preservation of human spiral ganglion neurons : A comparative study with clinical implications.

Liu W, Glueckert R, Linthicum FH, Rieger G, Blumer M, Bitsche M, Pechriggl E, Rask-Andersen H, Schrott-Fischer A - Cell Tissue Res. (2013)

Bottom Line: GJs and Cx43 expression has been recognized in satellite glial cells (SGCs) in non-myelinating sensory ganglia including the human SG.In man, SG neurons can survive as mono-polar or "amputated" cells with unbroken central projections following dendrite degeneration and consolidation of the dendrite pole.Cx43-mediated GJ signaling between SGCs is believed to play a key role in this "healing" process and could explain the unique preservation of human SG neurons and the persistence of cochlear implant function.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Surgical Sciences, Section of Otolaryngology, Uppsala University Hospital, 751 85, Uppsala, Sweden, lwoo24@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Human spiral ganglion (SG) neurons show remarkable survival properties and maintain electric excitability for a long time after complete deafness and even separation from the organ of Corti, features essential for cochlear implantation. Here, we analyze and compare the localization and distribution of gap junction (GJ) intercellular channels and connexin 43 (Cx43) in cells surrounding SG cell bodies in man and guinea pig by using transmission electron microscopy and confocal immunohistochemistry. GJs and Cx43 expression has been recognized in satellite glial cells (SGCs) in non-myelinating sensory ganglia including the human SG. In man, SG neurons can survive as mono-polar or "amputated" cells with unbroken central projections following dendrite degeneration and consolidation of the dendrite pole. Cx43-mediated GJ signaling between SGCs is believed to play a key role in this "healing" process and could explain the unique preservation of human SG neurons and the persistence of cochlear implant function.

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Immunohistochemistry of the human inner ear and technical controls in guinea pig cerebellum, heart and trigeminal and spiral ganglia. a Immunohistochemistry of guinea pig cerebellum. Neural marker TUJ1 (tubulin green) stains Purkinje cells and nerve processes. Expression of myelin basic protein (MBP red) is seen in the central axon but not in the peripheral nerve processes. b In the guinea pig spiral ganglion, the Schwann cells surrounding the perikarya express MBP. c Positive Cx43 reaction in guinea pig trigeminal ganglion cell bodies. Reaction product occurs as dots (arrow) and represents gap junction intercellular channels between individual glial cells (asterisks trigeminal ganglion neurons). Inset in c Ganglion cell bodies are TUJ1-positive and surrounded by unmyelinated satellite cells that are immune-positive for S-100. d, e Immunolabeling with two different antibodies (ab1 and ab2; Table 1) against connexin 43 (Cx43) in guinea pig heart muscle. f, g Positive immunoreaction for Cx43 (green) and Cx30 (red) in the human spiral ligament and stria vascularis. The connexin reactivity is seen both separately and co-expressed. h Cx43 expression in central glia in the transitional zone of the human auditory nerve. Bars 100 μm (a–c, inset in c), 15 μm (d, e), 25 μm (f, g), 20 μm (h)
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Fig1: Immunohistochemistry of the human inner ear and technical controls in guinea pig cerebellum, heart and trigeminal and spiral ganglia. a Immunohistochemistry of guinea pig cerebellum. Neural marker TUJ1 (tubulin green) stains Purkinje cells and nerve processes. Expression of myelin basic protein (MBP red) is seen in the central axon but not in the peripheral nerve processes. b In the guinea pig spiral ganglion, the Schwann cells surrounding the perikarya express MBP. c Positive Cx43 reaction in guinea pig trigeminal ganglion cell bodies. Reaction product occurs as dots (arrow) and represents gap junction intercellular channels between individual glial cells (asterisks trigeminal ganglion neurons). Inset in c Ganglion cell bodies are TUJ1-positive and surrounded by unmyelinated satellite cells that are immune-positive for S-100. d, e Immunolabeling with two different antibodies (ab1 and ab2; Table 1) against connexin 43 (Cx43) in guinea pig heart muscle. f, g Positive immunoreaction for Cx43 (green) and Cx30 (red) in the human spiral ligament and stria vascularis. The connexin reactivity is seen both separately and co-expressed. h Cx43 expression in central glia in the transitional zone of the human auditory nerve. Bars 100 μm (a–c, inset in c), 15 μm (d, e), 25 μm (f, g), 20 μm (h)

Mentions: First, positive immunostaining characteristics were analyzed in the guinea pig lateral cochlear wall and compared with the spiral and trigeminal ganglion and cerebellum. Secondly, two different types of antibodies were used that targeted phosphorylation properties of the protein residues. These antibodies were tested on guinea pig heart muscle (Fig. 1d, e). Thirdly, negative controls were carried out by omitting the primary antibody. Finally, the staining properties of the transitional zone of the auditory nerve were studied.Fig. 1


Possible role of gap junction intercellular channels and connexin 43 in satellite glial cells (SGCs) for preservation of human spiral ganglion neurons : A comparative study with clinical implications.

Liu W, Glueckert R, Linthicum FH, Rieger G, Blumer M, Bitsche M, Pechriggl E, Rask-Andersen H, Schrott-Fischer A - Cell Tissue Res. (2013)

Immunohistochemistry of the human inner ear and technical controls in guinea pig cerebellum, heart and trigeminal and spiral ganglia. a Immunohistochemistry of guinea pig cerebellum. Neural marker TUJ1 (tubulin green) stains Purkinje cells and nerve processes. Expression of myelin basic protein (MBP red) is seen in the central axon but not in the peripheral nerve processes. b In the guinea pig spiral ganglion, the Schwann cells surrounding the perikarya express MBP. c Positive Cx43 reaction in guinea pig trigeminal ganglion cell bodies. Reaction product occurs as dots (arrow) and represents gap junction intercellular channels between individual glial cells (asterisks trigeminal ganglion neurons). Inset in c Ganglion cell bodies are TUJ1-positive and surrounded by unmyelinated satellite cells that are immune-positive for S-100. d, e Immunolabeling with two different antibodies (ab1 and ab2; Table 1) against connexin 43 (Cx43) in guinea pig heart muscle. f, g Positive immunoreaction for Cx43 (green) and Cx30 (red) in the human spiral ligament and stria vascularis. The connexin reactivity is seen both separately and co-expressed. h Cx43 expression in central glia in the transitional zone of the human auditory nerve. Bars 100 μm (a–c, inset in c), 15 μm (d, e), 25 μm (f, g), 20 μm (h)
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3921454&req=5

Fig1: Immunohistochemistry of the human inner ear and technical controls in guinea pig cerebellum, heart and trigeminal and spiral ganglia. a Immunohistochemistry of guinea pig cerebellum. Neural marker TUJ1 (tubulin green) stains Purkinje cells and nerve processes. Expression of myelin basic protein (MBP red) is seen in the central axon but not in the peripheral nerve processes. b In the guinea pig spiral ganglion, the Schwann cells surrounding the perikarya express MBP. c Positive Cx43 reaction in guinea pig trigeminal ganglion cell bodies. Reaction product occurs as dots (arrow) and represents gap junction intercellular channels between individual glial cells (asterisks trigeminal ganglion neurons). Inset in c Ganglion cell bodies are TUJ1-positive and surrounded by unmyelinated satellite cells that are immune-positive for S-100. d, e Immunolabeling with two different antibodies (ab1 and ab2; Table 1) against connexin 43 (Cx43) in guinea pig heart muscle. f, g Positive immunoreaction for Cx43 (green) and Cx30 (red) in the human spiral ligament and stria vascularis. The connexin reactivity is seen both separately and co-expressed. h Cx43 expression in central glia in the transitional zone of the human auditory nerve. Bars 100 μm (a–c, inset in c), 15 μm (d, e), 25 μm (f, g), 20 μm (h)
Mentions: First, positive immunostaining characteristics were analyzed in the guinea pig lateral cochlear wall and compared with the spiral and trigeminal ganglion and cerebellum. Secondly, two different types of antibodies were used that targeted phosphorylation properties of the protein residues. These antibodies were tested on guinea pig heart muscle (Fig. 1d, e). Thirdly, negative controls were carried out by omitting the primary antibody. Finally, the staining properties of the transitional zone of the auditory nerve were studied.Fig. 1

Bottom Line: GJs and Cx43 expression has been recognized in satellite glial cells (SGCs) in non-myelinating sensory ganglia including the human SG.In man, SG neurons can survive as mono-polar or "amputated" cells with unbroken central projections following dendrite degeneration and consolidation of the dendrite pole.Cx43-mediated GJ signaling between SGCs is believed to play a key role in this "healing" process and could explain the unique preservation of human SG neurons and the persistence of cochlear implant function.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Surgical Sciences, Section of Otolaryngology, Uppsala University Hospital, 751 85, Uppsala, Sweden, lwoo24@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Human spiral ganglion (SG) neurons show remarkable survival properties and maintain electric excitability for a long time after complete deafness and even separation from the organ of Corti, features essential for cochlear implantation. Here, we analyze and compare the localization and distribution of gap junction (GJ) intercellular channels and connexin 43 (Cx43) in cells surrounding SG cell bodies in man and guinea pig by using transmission electron microscopy and confocal immunohistochemistry. GJs and Cx43 expression has been recognized in satellite glial cells (SGCs) in non-myelinating sensory ganglia including the human SG. In man, SG neurons can survive as mono-polar or "amputated" cells with unbroken central projections following dendrite degeneration and consolidation of the dendrite pole. Cx43-mediated GJ signaling between SGCs is believed to play a key role in this "healing" process and could explain the unique preservation of human SG neurons and the persistence of cochlear implant function.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus