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Transport distance of invertebrate environmental DNA in a natural river.

Deiner K, Altermatt F - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: We detected D. longispina at all locations and across two time points (July and October); whereas with U. tumidus, we observed a decreased detection rate and did not detect its eDNA after 9.1 km.We also observed a difference in detection for this species at different times of year.Our results indicate that there may be species' specific transport distances for eDNA and demonstrate for the first time that invertebrate eDNA can persist over relatively large distances in a natural river system.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Aquatic Ecology, Eawag: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Dübendorf, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT
Environmental DNA (eDNA) monitoring is a novel molecular technique to detect species in natural habitats. Many eDNA studies in aquatic systems have focused on lake or ponds, and/or on large vertebrate species, but applications to invertebrates in river systems are emerging. A challenge in applying eDNA monitoring in flowing waters is that a species' DNA can be transported downstream. Whether and how far eDNA can be detected due to downstream transport remains largely unknown. In this study we tested for downstream detection of eDNA for two invertebrate species, Daphnia longispina and Unio tumidus, which are lake dwelling species in our study area. The goal was to determine how far away from the source population in a lake their eDNA could be detected in an outflowing river. We sampled water from eleven river sites in regular intervals up to 12.3 km downstream of the lake, developed new eDNA probes for both species, and used a standard PCR and Sanger sequencing detection method to confirm presence of each species' eDNA in the river. We detected D. longispina at all locations and across two time points (July and October); whereas with U. tumidus, we observed a decreased detection rate and did not detect its eDNA after 9.1 km. We also observed a difference in detection for this species at different times of year. The observed movement of eDNA from the source amounting to nearly 10 km for these species indicates that the resolution of an eDNA sample can be large in river systems. Our results indicate that there may be species' specific transport distances for eDNA and demonstrate for the first time that invertebrate eDNA can persist over relatively large distances in a natural river system.

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Depicted is the geographic area of study and river system where transport of eDNA was measured.Study area within Switzerland (A) and sampling locations (B) in the outflowing (direction indicated by red arrow) River Glatt. Red dot is the sampling location in the Lake Greifensee where the source populations for both species, Daphnia longispina and Unio tumidus are found. Chimlibach (yellow dot) is a small tributary feeding into the Glatt river system (direction indicated by yellow arrow) and served as a negative control. Black dots are sampling locations tested for presence of eDNA form the two species. Tributaries to the Glatt indicated in blue lines and additional dilution sources from wastewater treatment plant release points are indicated with black arrows. Numbers are the distance (in km) of the sampling sites away from the lake (measured as along-stream distance).
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pone-0088786-g001: Depicted is the geographic area of study and river system where transport of eDNA was measured.Study area within Switzerland (A) and sampling locations (B) in the outflowing (direction indicated by red arrow) River Glatt. Red dot is the sampling location in the Lake Greifensee where the source populations for both species, Daphnia longispina and Unio tumidus are found. Chimlibach (yellow dot) is a small tributary feeding into the Glatt river system (direction indicated by yellow arrow) and served as a negative control. Black dots are sampling locations tested for presence of eDNA form the two species. Tributaries to the Glatt indicated in blue lines and additional dilution sources from wastewater treatment plant release points are indicated with black arrows. Numbers are the distance (in km) of the sampling sites away from the lake (measured as along-stream distance).

Mentions: In this study we tested for downstream detection of eDNA for two invertebrate species, Daphnia longispina and Unio tumidus. Daphnia longispina is likely to be a species complex [21], but in this study we refer to the group here as Daphnia longispina. It is a planktonic crustacean (order Cladocera) and can reach up to 2 mm in length. It has a continuous, overlapping sequence of generations in summer, grows by regular molting, and can reach high population densities [22]. Unio tumidus is a sessile mussel (order Unionoida), inhabiting lake bottoms at relatively low densities and grows to about 10–15 cm in length. It is a long-lived, filter-feeding organism, producing planktonic gametes and larval stages (glochidia) only at specific times of the year [22]. Possible release of eDNA or tissue containing DNA (henceforth commonly referred to as “eDNA”) in these two species may occur during molting (where cells are shed off), production of mucous (especially for U. tumidus), production of small and easily dispersed reproductive stages, or decay of the organism when predated upon or after death. Both species are lake dwelling in our study area and have never been detected in the study river [23]. Our goal was to estimate the transport distance of eDNA for these two species by determining how far away from their source population in the lake their eDNA could be detected in its outflowing river (Fig. 1). We sampled water from eleven river sites in regular intervals up to 12.3 km downstream of the lake, developed new eDNA probes for both species, and used a standard PCR and Sanger sequencing detection method to confirm presence of each species' DNA in the river.


Transport distance of invertebrate environmental DNA in a natural river.

Deiner K, Altermatt F - PLoS ONE (2014)

Depicted is the geographic area of study and river system where transport of eDNA was measured.Study area within Switzerland (A) and sampling locations (B) in the outflowing (direction indicated by red arrow) River Glatt. Red dot is the sampling location in the Lake Greifensee where the source populations for both species, Daphnia longispina and Unio tumidus are found. Chimlibach (yellow dot) is a small tributary feeding into the Glatt river system (direction indicated by yellow arrow) and served as a negative control. Black dots are sampling locations tested for presence of eDNA form the two species. Tributaries to the Glatt indicated in blue lines and additional dilution sources from wastewater treatment plant release points are indicated with black arrows. Numbers are the distance (in km) of the sampling sites away from the lake (measured as along-stream distance).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3921251&req=5

pone-0088786-g001: Depicted is the geographic area of study and river system where transport of eDNA was measured.Study area within Switzerland (A) and sampling locations (B) in the outflowing (direction indicated by red arrow) River Glatt. Red dot is the sampling location in the Lake Greifensee where the source populations for both species, Daphnia longispina and Unio tumidus are found. Chimlibach (yellow dot) is a small tributary feeding into the Glatt river system (direction indicated by yellow arrow) and served as a negative control. Black dots are sampling locations tested for presence of eDNA form the two species. Tributaries to the Glatt indicated in blue lines and additional dilution sources from wastewater treatment plant release points are indicated with black arrows. Numbers are the distance (in km) of the sampling sites away from the lake (measured as along-stream distance).
Mentions: In this study we tested for downstream detection of eDNA for two invertebrate species, Daphnia longispina and Unio tumidus. Daphnia longispina is likely to be a species complex [21], but in this study we refer to the group here as Daphnia longispina. It is a planktonic crustacean (order Cladocera) and can reach up to 2 mm in length. It has a continuous, overlapping sequence of generations in summer, grows by regular molting, and can reach high population densities [22]. Unio tumidus is a sessile mussel (order Unionoida), inhabiting lake bottoms at relatively low densities and grows to about 10–15 cm in length. It is a long-lived, filter-feeding organism, producing planktonic gametes and larval stages (glochidia) only at specific times of the year [22]. Possible release of eDNA or tissue containing DNA (henceforth commonly referred to as “eDNA”) in these two species may occur during molting (where cells are shed off), production of mucous (especially for U. tumidus), production of small and easily dispersed reproductive stages, or decay of the organism when predated upon or after death. Both species are lake dwelling in our study area and have never been detected in the study river [23]. Our goal was to estimate the transport distance of eDNA for these two species by determining how far away from their source population in the lake their eDNA could be detected in its outflowing river (Fig. 1). We sampled water from eleven river sites in regular intervals up to 12.3 km downstream of the lake, developed new eDNA probes for both species, and used a standard PCR and Sanger sequencing detection method to confirm presence of each species' DNA in the river.

Bottom Line: We detected D. longispina at all locations and across two time points (July and October); whereas with U. tumidus, we observed a decreased detection rate and did not detect its eDNA after 9.1 km.We also observed a difference in detection for this species at different times of year.Our results indicate that there may be species' specific transport distances for eDNA and demonstrate for the first time that invertebrate eDNA can persist over relatively large distances in a natural river system.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Aquatic Ecology, Eawag: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Dübendorf, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT
Environmental DNA (eDNA) monitoring is a novel molecular technique to detect species in natural habitats. Many eDNA studies in aquatic systems have focused on lake or ponds, and/or on large vertebrate species, but applications to invertebrates in river systems are emerging. A challenge in applying eDNA monitoring in flowing waters is that a species' DNA can be transported downstream. Whether and how far eDNA can be detected due to downstream transport remains largely unknown. In this study we tested for downstream detection of eDNA for two invertebrate species, Daphnia longispina and Unio tumidus, which are lake dwelling species in our study area. The goal was to determine how far away from the source population in a lake their eDNA could be detected in an outflowing river. We sampled water from eleven river sites in regular intervals up to 12.3 km downstream of the lake, developed new eDNA probes for both species, and used a standard PCR and Sanger sequencing detection method to confirm presence of each species' eDNA in the river. We detected D. longispina at all locations and across two time points (July and October); whereas with U. tumidus, we observed a decreased detection rate and did not detect its eDNA after 9.1 km. We also observed a difference in detection for this species at different times of year. The observed movement of eDNA from the source amounting to nearly 10 km for these species indicates that the resolution of an eDNA sample can be large in river systems. Our results indicate that there may be species' specific transport distances for eDNA and demonstrate for the first time that invertebrate eDNA can persist over relatively large distances in a natural river system.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus