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Strawberry flavor: diverse chemical compositions, a seasonal influence, and effects on sensory perception.

Schwieterman ML, Colquhoun TA, Jaworski EA, Bartoshuk LM, Gilbert JL, Tieman DM, Odabasi AZ, Moskowitz HR, Folta KM, Klee HJ, Sims CA, Whitaker VM, Clark DG - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Particular esters, terpenes, and furans have the most significant fits to strawberry flavor intensity.These findings allow for consumer influence in the breeding of more desirable fruits and vegetables.Also, this approach garners insights into fruit metabolomics, flavor chemistry, and a paradigm for enhancing liking of natural or processed products.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Plant Molecular and Cellular Biology Program, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America ; Plant Innovation Program, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Fresh strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa) are valued for their characteristic red color, juicy texture, distinct aroma, and sweet fruity flavor. In this study, genetic and environmentally induced variation is exploited to capture biochemically diverse strawberry fruit for metabolite profiling and consumer rating. Analyses identify fruit attributes influencing hedonics and sensory perception of strawberry fruit using a psychophysics approach. Sweetness intensity, flavor intensity, and texture liking are dependent on sugar concentrations, specific volatile compounds, and fruit firmness, respectively. Overall liking is most greatly influenced by sweetness and strawberry flavor intensity, which are undermined by environmental pressures that reduce sucrose and total volatile content. The volatile profiles among commercial strawberry varieties are complex and distinct, but a list of perceptually impactful compounds from the larger mixture is better defined. Particular esters, terpenes, and furans have the most significant fits to strawberry flavor intensity. In total, thirty-one volatile compounds are found to be significantly correlated to strawberry flavor intensity, only one of them negatively. Further analysis identifies individual volatile compounds that have an enhancing effect on perceived sweetness intensity of fruit independent of sugar content. These findings allow for consumer influence in the breeding of more desirable fruits and vegetables. Also, this approach garners insights into fruit metabolomics, flavor chemistry, and a paradigm for enhancing liking of natural or processed products.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Regression of hedonic and sensory measures to physical and chemical fruit attributes.Hedonic overall liking is regressed against hedonic texture liking (A), sweetness intensity (B), sourness intensity (C), and strawberry flavor intensity (D). Overall liking is fitted to harvest week (E), total sugars (F), titratable acidity (G), and total volatiles (H). Texture liking is examined against puncture force (I). Intensity of sourness is fitted to titratable acidity (J), malic acid (K), and citric acid (L). Sweetness intensity is regressed against total sugars (M), sucrose (N), glucose (O), and total volatiles (P). Strawberry flavor intensity is regressed by total volatiles (Q) and select single volatile compounds 1576-87-0 (R), 623-42-7 (S), and 110-62-3 (T). Coefficient of determination (R2) and p-value of fit is listed above individual scatterplots and is calculated using bivariate fit in JMP 8. Dashed line represents mean of independent variable, solid line represents linear fit, dashed/dotted ellipse indicates 95% confidence range of data, and asterisk denotes significant fit (α = 0.05).
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pone-0088446-g003: Regression of hedonic and sensory measures to physical and chemical fruit attributes.Hedonic overall liking is regressed against hedonic texture liking (A), sweetness intensity (B), sourness intensity (C), and strawberry flavor intensity (D). Overall liking is fitted to harvest week (E), total sugars (F), titratable acidity (G), and total volatiles (H). Texture liking is examined against puncture force (I). Intensity of sourness is fitted to titratable acidity (J), malic acid (K), and citric acid (L). Sweetness intensity is regressed against total sugars (M), sucrose (N), glucose (O), and total volatiles (P). Strawberry flavor intensity is regressed by total volatiles (Q) and select single volatile compounds 1576-87-0 (R), 623-42-7 (S), and 110-62-3 (T). Coefficient of determination (R2) and p-value of fit is listed above individual scatterplots and is calculated using bivariate fit in JMP 8. Dashed line represents mean of independent variable, solid line represents linear fit, dashed/dotted ellipse indicates 95% confidence range of data, and asterisk denotes significant fit (α = 0.05).

Mentions: Solar radiation, minimum temperature and maximum temperature increase gradually within the limits of similar ranges in season 1 and season 2 (Fig. S1 A-D). Relative humidity remains constant during and across seasons (Fig. S1 E, F). Slightly more rain fell in early season 1 than season 2 (Fig. S1 G-H) One manifestation of these environmental changes over a harvest season is the negative relationship between total sugar and harvest week (Table 1). The content of all individual sugars measured decreases between early and late season ‘Festival’ samples; however there is a significant decrease in the proportion of sucrose to total sugar (Table 1). The disproportionate decrease is observed for the collection of samples as well (Fig. S2A-C) (Table S3). Also, a significant correlation is observed across all 54 samples among total volatiles and sucrose (R2 = 0.305*) (Fig. S2E) but not glucose (R2 = 0.005) (data not shown) or fructose (R2 = 0.001) (Fig. S2F). A harvest week associated decrease in total sugars, predominantly sucrose, results in a decrease in volatile content, which ultimately undermines late season overall liking (R2 = 0.422*) (Fig. 3E) through sweetness and strawberry flavor intensity.


Strawberry flavor: diverse chemical compositions, a seasonal influence, and effects on sensory perception.

Schwieterman ML, Colquhoun TA, Jaworski EA, Bartoshuk LM, Gilbert JL, Tieman DM, Odabasi AZ, Moskowitz HR, Folta KM, Klee HJ, Sims CA, Whitaker VM, Clark DG - PLoS ONE (2014)

Regression of hedonic and sensory measures to physical and chemical fruit attributes.Hedonic overall liking is regressed against hedonic texture liking (A), sweetness intensity (B), sourness intensity (C), and strawberry flavor intensity (D). Overall liking is fitted to harvest week (E), total sugars (F), titratable acidity (G), and total volatiles (H). Texture liking is examined against puncture force (I). Intensity of sourness is fitted to titratable acidity (J), malic acid (K), and citric acid (L). Sweetness intensity is regressed against total sugars (M), sucrose (N), glucose (O), and total volatiles (P). Strawberry flavor intensity is regressed by total volatiles (Q) and select single volatile compounds 1576-87-0 (R), 623-42-7 (S), and 110-62-3 (T). Coefficient of determination (R2) and p-value of fit is listed above individual scatterplots and is calculated using bivariate fit in JMP 8. Dashed line represents mean of independent variable, solid line represents linear fit, dashed/dotted ellipse indicates 95% confidence range of data, and asterisk denotes significant fit (α = 0.05).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3921181&req=5

pone-0088446-g003: Regression of hedonic and sensory measures to physical and chemical fruit attributes.Hedonic overall liking is regressed against hedonic texture liking (A), sweetness intensity (B), sourness intensity (C), and strawberry flavor intensity (D). Overall liking is fitted to harvest week (E), total sugars (F), titratable acidity (G), and total volatiles (H). Texture liking is examined against puncture force (I). Intensity of sourness is fitted to titratable acidity (J), malic acid (K), and citric acid (L). Sweetness intensity is regressed against total sugars (M), sucrose (N), glucose (O), and total volatiles (P). Strawberry flavor intensity is regressed by total volatiles (Q) and select single volatile compounds 1576-87-0 (R), 623-42-7 (S), and 110-62-3 (T). Coefficient of determination (R2) and p-value of fit is listed above individual scatterplots and is calculated using bivariate fit in JMP 8. Dashed line represents mean of independent variable, solid line represents linear fit, dashed/dotted ellipse indicates 95% confidence range of data, and asterisk denotes significant fit (α = 0.05).
Mentions: Solar radiation, minimum temperature and maximum temperature increase gradually within the limits of similar ranges in season 1 and season 2 (Fig. S1 A-D). Relative humidity remains constant during and across seasons (Fig. S1 E, F). Slightly more rain fell in early season 1 than season 2 (Fig. S1 G-H) One manifestation of these environmental changes over a harvest season is the negative relationship between total sugar and harvest week (Table 1). The content of all individual sugars measured decreases between early and late season ‘Festival’ samples; however there is a significant decrease in the proportion of sucrose to total sugar (Table 1). The disproportionate decrease is observed for the collection of samples as well (Fig. S2A-C) (Table S3). Also, a significant correlation is observed across all 54 samples among total volatiles and sucrose (R2 = 0.305*) (Fig. S2E) but not glucose (R2 = 0.005) (data not shown) or fructose (R2 = 0.001) (Fig. S2F). A harvest week associated decrease in total sugars, predominantly sucrose, results in a decrease in volatile content, which ultimately undermines late season overall liking (R2 = 0.422*) (Fig. 3E) through sweetness and strawberry flavor intensity.

Bottom Line: Particular esters, terpenes, and furans have the most significant fits to strawberry flavor intensity.These findings allow for consumer influence in the breeding of more desirable fruits and vegetables.Also, this approach garners insights into fruit metabolomics, flavor chemistry, and a paradigm for enhancing liking of natural or processed products.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Plant Molecular and Cellular Biology Program, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America ; Plant Innovation Program, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Fresh strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa) are valued for their characteristic red color, juicy texture, distinct aroma, and sweet fruity flavor. In this study, genetic and environmentally induced variation is exploited to capture biochemically diverse strawberry fruit for metabolite profiling and consumer rating. Analyses identify fruit attributes influencing hedonics and sensory perception of strawberry fruit using a psychophysics approach. Sweetness intensity, flavor intensity, and texture liking are dependent on sugar concentrations, specific volatile compounds, and fruit firmness, respectively. Overall liking is most greatly influenced by sweetness and strawberry flavor intensity, which are undermined by environmental pressures that reduce sucrose and total volatile content. The volatile profiles among commercial strawberry varieties are complex and distinct, but a list of perceptually impactful compounds from the larger mixture is better defined. Particular esters, terpenes, and furans have the most significant fits to strawberry flavor intensity. In total, thirty-one volatile compounds are found to be significantly correlated to strawberry flavor intensity, only one of them negatively. Further analysis identifies individual volatile compounds that have an enhancing effect on perceived sweetness intensity of fruit independent of sugar content. These findings allow for consumer influence in the breeding of more desirable fruits and vegetables. Also, this approach garners insights into fruit metabolomics, flavor chemistry, and a paradigm for enhancing liking of natural or processed products.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus