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Long-term survival and dialysis dependency following acute kidney injury in intensive care: extended follow-up of a randomized controlled trial.

Gallagher M, Cass A, Bellomo R, Finfer S, Gattas D, Lee J, Lo S, McGuinness S, Myburgh J, Parke R, Rajbhandari D, POST-RENAL Study Investigators and the ANZICS Clinical Trials Gro - PLoS Med. (2014)

Bottom Line: AKI is associated with high mortality and cost of hospitalisation.Patients with AKI requiring RRT in intensive care have high long-term mortality but few require maintenance dialysis.Long-term survivors have a heavy burden of proteinuria.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The George Institute for Global Health, Sydney, Australia ; University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

ABSTRACT

Background: The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) is increasing globally and it is much more common than end-stage kidney disease. AKI is associated with high mortality and cost of hospitalisation. Studies of treatments to reduce this high mortality have used differing renal replacement therapy (RRT) modalities and have not shown improvement in the short term. The reported long-term outcomes of AKI are variable and the effect of differing RRT modalities upon them is not clear. We used the prolonged follow-up of a large clinical trial to prospectively examine the long-term outcomes and effect of RRT dosing in patients with AKI.

Methods and findings: We extended the follow-up of participants in the Randomised Evaluation of Normal vs. Augmented Levels of RRT (RENAL) study from 90 days to 4 years after randomization. Primary and secondary outcomes were mortality and requirement for maintenance dialysis, respectively, assessed in 1,464 (97%) patients at a median of 43.9 months (interquartile range [IQR] 30.0-48.6 months) post randomization. A total of 468/743 (63%) and 444/721 (62%) patients died in the lower and higher intensity groups, respectively (risk ratio [RR] 1.04, 95% CI 0.96-1.12, p = 0.49). Amongst survivors to day 90, 21 of 411 (5.1%) and 23 of 399 (5.8%) in the respective groups were treated with maintenance dialysis (RR 1.12, 95% CI 0.63-2.00, p = 0.69). The prevalence of albuminuria among survivors was 40% and 44%, respectively (p = 0.48). Quality of life was not different between the two treatment groups. The generalizability of these findings to other populations with AKI requires further exploration.

Conclusions: Patients with AKI requiring RRT in intensive care have high long-term mortality but few require maintenance dialysis. Long-term survivors have a heavy burden of proteinuria. Increased intensity of RRT does not reduce mortality or subsequent treatment with dialysis.

Trial registration: www.ClinicalTrials.govNCT00221013.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Kaplan-Meier survival curve for all study participants from randomization to end of extended follow-up, shown by treatment group.
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pmed-1001601-g002: Kaplan-Meier survival curve for all study participants from randomization to end of extended follow-up, shown by treatment group.

Mentions: Primary and secondary outcomes were derived at a median of 42.4 months (IQR 30.0–48.6 months) post randomization. There were a further 258 deaths during the POST-RENAL study (122 in the lower intensity group, 136 in the higher intensity group), giving an overall mortality rate of 62% in the study cohort (Figure 2).


Long-term survival and dialysis dependency following acute kidney injury in intensive care: extended follow-up of a randomized controlled trial.

Gallagher M, Cass A, Bellomo R, Finfer S, Gattas D, Lee J, Lo S, McGuinness S, Myburgh J, Parke R, Rajbhandari D, POST-RENAL Study Investigators and the ANZICS Clinical Trials Gro - PLoS Med. (2014)

Kaplan-Meier survival curve for all study participants from randomization to end of extended follow-up, shown by treatment group.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3921111&req=5

pmed-1001601-g002: Kaplan-Meier survival curve for all study participants from randomization to end of extended follow-up, shown by treatment group.
Mentions: Primary and secondary outcomes were derived at a median of 42.4 months (IQR 30.0–48.6 months) post randomization. There were a further 258 deaths during the POST-RENAL study (122 in the lower intensity group, 136 in the higher intensity group), giving an overall mortality rate of 62% in the study cohort (Figure 2).

Bottom Line: AKI is associated with high mortality and cost of hospitalisation.Patients with AKI requiring RRT in intensive care have high long-term mortality but few require maintenance dialysis.Long-term survivors have a heavy burden of proteinuria.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The George Institute for Global Health, Sydney, Australia ; University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

ABSTRACT

Background: The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) is increasing globally and it is much more common than end-stage kidney disease. AKI is associated with high mortality and cost of hospitalisation. Studies of treatments to reduce this high mortality have used differing renal replacement therapy (RRT) modalities and have not shown improvement in the short term. The reported long-term outcomes of AKI are variable and the effect of differing RRT modalities upon them is not clear. We used the prolonged follow-up of a large clinical trial to prospectively examine the long-term outcomes and effect of RRT dosing in patients with AKI.

Methods and findings: We extended the follow-up of participants in the Randomised Evaluation of Normal vs. Augmented Levels of RRT (RENAL) study from 90 days to 4 years after randomization. Primary and secondary outcomes were mortality and requirement for maintenance dialysis, respectively, assessed in 1,464 (97%) patients at a median of 43.9 months (interquartile range [IQR] 30.0-48.6 months) post randomization. A total of 468/743 (63%) and 444/721 (62%) patients died in the lower and higher intensity groups, respectively (risk ratio [RR] 1.04, 95% CI 0.96-1.12, p = 0.49). Amongst survivors to day 90, 21 of 411 (5.1%) and 23 of 399 (5.8%) in the respective groups were treated with maintenance dialysis (RR 1.12, 95% CI 0.63-2.00, p = 0.69). The prevalence of albuminuria among survivors was 40% and 44%, respectively (p = 0.48). Quality of life was not different between the two treatment groups. The generalizability of these findings to other populations with AKI requires further exploration.

Conclusions: Patients with AKI requiring RRT in intensive care have high long-term mortality but few require maintenance dialysis. Long-term survivors have a heavy burden of proteinuria. Increased intensity of RRT does not reduce mortality or subsequent treatment with dialysis.

Trial registration: www.ClinicalTrials.govNCT00221013.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus