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Gratitude, hope, mindfulness and personal-growth initiative: buffers or risk factors for problem gambling?

Loo JM, Tsai JS, Raylu N, Oei TP - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: In healthcare settings, PG and other disorders are typically conceptualized from the biomedical perspective that frame disorders as something negative residing within the individual and reduction in negativity is seen as success.Higher levels of gratitude and hope have been found to predict lower PG, gambling-related cognitions, or gambling urges.These analyses have small to medium effect sizes with significant predictions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Malaysia, Sunway, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
The majority of prevention and intervention research in problem gambling (PG) has focused on identifying negative risk factors. However, not all at-risk individuals go on to develop anticipated disorders and many thrive in spite of them. In healthcare settings, PG and other disorders are typically conceptualized from the biomedical perspective that frame disorders as something negative residing within the individual and reduction in negativity is seen as success. Indeed, this problem-focused conceptualization may be adequate in many cases as reducing PG behaviour is undoubtedly an important outcome, but the focus on negativity alone is too narrow to capture the complexity of human behaviour. Hence, this study attempts to bridge the gap in literature by providing an evaluation of the predictive ability of the positive dispositions on problem gambling severity, gambling-related cognitions, and gambling urges. The positive psychological dispositions examined were curiosity, gratitude, hope, personal growth initiative, and mindfulness. Participants consisted of 801 Taiwanese Chinese students and community individuals (Mean age = 25.36 years). Higher levels of gratitude and hope have been found to predict lower PG, gambling-related cognitions, or gambling urges. Meanwhile, higher mindfulness predicted lower PG, but only among Chinese males. However, lower personal growth initiative predicted lower PG, gambling-related cognitions, and gambling urges. These analyses have small to medium effect sizes with significant predictions. Findings of this study have essential implications in understanding and treating Chinese problem gamblers. These positive dispositions should be addressed by mental health professionals in preventative and treatment programs among Chinese individuals. Further implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

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The interaction of gender and hope (AHS-total) on SOGS-C.
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pone-0083889-g001: The interaction of gender and hope (AHS-total) on SOGS-C.

Mentions: First, HMR was used to assess the extent to which these variables could predict PG. South Oaks Gambling Scale (SOGS-C) total score was used as the dependent variable (DV). The independent variables (IV) and interaction variables were: (Step 1) Gender, (Step 2) CEI-total, GQ-total, AHS-total, PGI-total and MAAS-total, and (Step 3) Two-way interactions between gender and total scores entered in Step 2. Table 3 displays the standardized regression coefficients (β), R2 change, R, R2, and Adjusted R2 after entry of all independent variables to predict outcome variables. R was significantly different from zero at Step 2 and Step 3. HMR results showed that the overall model was significant F (11, 744) = 3.14, p<.001. The R2 value of 0.044 indicates that 4.4% of the variability in SOGS-C is accounted for by the predictors. Only these variables significantly predicted and accounted for variance in SOGS-C scores: (1) CEI-total (accounted for 0.03% of variance), (2) AHS- total (0.80%), (3) MAAS-total (0.50%), and (4) Interaction between gender and AHS-total (1.70%). Figure 1 shows the simple slopes of the level of hope (AHS-total) for each group of gender (i.e., moderator). The link between hope and SOGS-C is significant for males, but not for females. For males, higher levels of hope predict lower SOGS-C score.


Gratitude, hope, mindfulness and personal-growth initiative: buffers or risk factors for problem gambling?

Loo JM, Tsai JS, Raylu N, Oei TP - PLoS ONE (2014)

The interaction of gender and hope (AHS-total) on SOGS-C.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3921109&req=5

pone-0083889-g001: The interaction of gender and hope (AHS-total) on SOGS-C.
Mentions: First, HMR was used to assess the extent to which these variables could predict PG. South Oaks Gambling Scale (SOGS-C) total score was used as the dependent variable (DV). The independent variables (IV) and interaction variables were: (Step 1) Gender, (Step 2) CEI-total, GQ-total, AHS-total, PGI-total and MAAS-total, and (Step 3) Two-way interactions between gender and total scores entered in Step 2. Table 3 displays the standardized regression coefficients (β), R2 change, R, R2, and Adjusted R2 after entry of all independent variables to predict outcome variables. R was significantly different from zero at Step 2 and Step 3. HMR results showed that the overall model was significant F (11, 744) = 3.14, p<.001. The R2 value of 0.044 indicates that 4.4% of the variability in SOGS-C is accounted for by the predictors. Only these variables significantly predicted and accounted for variance in SOGS-C scores: (1) CEI-total (accounted for 0.03% of variance), (2) AHS- total (0.80%), (3) MAAS-total (0.50%), and (4) Interaction between gender and AHS-total (1.70%). Figure 1 shows the simple slopes of the level of hope (AHS-total) for each group of gender (i.e., moderator). The link between hope and SOGS-C is significant for males, but not for females. For males, higher levels of hope predict lower SOGS-C score.

Bottom Line: In healthcare settings, PG and other disorders are typically conceptualized from the biomedical perspective that frame disorders as something negative residing within the individual and reduction in negativity is seen as success.Higher levels of gratitude and hope have been found to predict lower PG, gambling-related cognitions, or gambling urges.These analyses have small to medium effect sizes with significant predictions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Malaysia, Sunway, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
The majority of prevention and intervention research in problem gambling (PG) has focused on identifying negative risk factors. However, not all at-risk individuals go on to develop anticipated disorders and many thrive in spite of them. In healthcare settings, PG and other disorders are typically conceptualized from the biomedical perspective that frame disorders as something negative residing within the individual and reduction in negativity is seen as success. Indeed, this problem-focused conceptualization may be adequate in many cases as reducing PG behaviour is undoubtedly an important outcome, but the focus on negativity alone is too narrow to capture the complexity of human behaviour. Hence, this study attempts to bridge the gap in literature by providing an evaluation of the predictive ability of the positive dispositions on problem gambling severity, gambling-related cognitions, and gambling urges. The positive psychological dispositions examined were curiosity, gratitude, hope, personal growth initiative, and mindfulness. Participants consisted of 801 Taiwanese Chinese students and community individuals (Mean age = 25.36 years). Higher levels of gratitude and hope have been found to predict lower PG, gambling-related cognitions, or gambling urges. Meanwhile, higher mindfulness predicted lower PG, but only among Chinese males. However, lower personal growth initiative predicted lower PG, gambling-related cognitions, and gambling urges. These analyses have small to medium effect sizes with significant predictions. Findings of this study have essential implications in understanding and treating Chinese problem gamblers. These positive dispositions should be addressed by mental health professionals in preventative and treatment programs among Chinese individuals. Further implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

Show MeSH