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Trends in tobacco smoke exposure and blood lead levels among youths and adults in the United States: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2008.

Richter PA, Bishop EE, Wang J, Kaufmann R - Prev Chronic Dis (2013)

Bottom Line: Tobacco smoke is a source of exposure to thousands of toxic chemicals including lead, a chemical of longstanding public health concern.Regression models for lead included age, race/ethnicity, poverty, survey year, sex, age of home, birth country, and, for adults, alcohol consumption.Despite remediation efforts in housing and the environment and declining smoking rates and secondhand smoke exposure in the United States, tobacco smoke continues to be a substantial source of exposure to lead in vulnerable populations and the population in general.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Office of Smoking and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341. E-mail: patricia.richter@fda.hhs.gov.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Tobacco smoke is a source of exposure to thousands of toxic chemicals including lead, a chemical of longstanding public health concern. We assessed trends in blood lead levels in youths and adults with cotinine-verified tobacco smoke exposure by using 10 years of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

Methods: Geometric mean levels of blood lead are presented for increasing levels of tobacco smoke exposure. Regression models for lead included age, race/ethnicity, poverty, survey year, sex, age of home, birth country, and, for adults, alcohol consumption. Lead levels were evaluated for smokers and nonsmokers on the basis of age of residence and occupation.

Results: Positive trend tests indicate that a linear relationship exists between smoke exposure and blood lead levels in youths and adults and that secondhand smoke exposure contributes to blood lead levels above the level caused by smoking.

Conclusion: Youths with secondhand smoke exposure had blood lead levels suggestive of the potential for adverse cognitive outcomes. Despite remediation efforts in housing and the environment and declining smoking rates and secondhand smoke exposure in the United States, tobacco smoke continues to be a substantial source of exposure to lead in vulnerable populations and the population in general.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Blood lead levels in youths with and without exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) and in adult smokers and nonsmokers with and without SHS exposure, by categories of age of residence, National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 1999–2008.Age of ResidenceBlood Lead Level, μg/dLYouths (aged <19 years)Adults (aged ≥19 years)Nonsmokers Without SHS ExposureNonsmokers With SHS ExposureNonsmokers Without SHS ExposureNonsmokers With SHS ExposureSmokers1949 or earlier1.31.61.41.62.11950–19771.01.31.31.41.91978 or later0.91.11.31.31.9
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Figure 1: Blood lead levels in youths with and without exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) and in adult smokers and nonsmokers with and without SHS exposure, by categories of age of residence, National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 1999–2008.Age of ResidenceBlood Lead Level, μg/dLYouths (aged <19 years)Adults (aged ≥19 years)Nonsmokers Without SHS ExposureNonsmokers With SHS ExposureNonsmokers Without SHS ExposureNonsmokers With SHS ExposureSmokers1949 or earlier1.31.61.41.62.11950–19771.01.31.31.41.91978 or later0.91.11.31.31.9

Mentions: People living below the poverty threshold, people living in homes built in 1949 or earlier (Figure 1), or people born outside the United States had higher BLLs (Table 2). For youths, there was a significant decreasing trend for BLLs by survey year. Nonsmoking youths with SHS exposure had higher BLLs than did the group without SHS exposure in all survey years. For adults, there was again a significant decreasing trend for BLLs by survey year. The BLLs in adult smokers (19 years of age or older) were higher than the BLLs for adult nonsmokers with or without SHS exposure (Table 3).


Trends in tobacco smoke exposure and blood lead levels among youths and adults in the United States: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2008.

Richter PA, Bishop EE, Wang J, Kaufmann R - Prev Chronic Dis (2013)

Blood lead levels in youths with and without exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) and in adult smokers and nonsmokers with and without SHS exposure, by categories of age of residence, National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 1999–2008.Age of ResidenceBlood Lead Level, μg/dLYouths (aged <19 years)Adults (aged ≥19 years)Nonsmokers Without SHS ExposureNonsmokers With SHS ExposureNonsmokers Without SHS ExposureNonsmokers With SHS ExposureSmokers1949 or earlier1.31.61.41.62.11950–19771.01.31.31.41.91978 or later0.91.11.31.31.9
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3869531&req=5

Figure 1: Blood lead levels in youths with and without exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) and in adult smokers and nonsmokers with and without SHS exposure, by categories of age of residence, National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 1999–2008.Age of ResidenceBlood Lead Level, μg/dLYouths (aged <19 years)Adults (aged ≥19 years)Nonsmokers Without SHS ExposureNonsmokers With SHS ExposureNonsmokers Without SHS ExposureNonsmokers With SHS ExposureSmokers1949 or earlier1.31.61.41.62.11950–19771.01.31.31.41.91978 or later0.91.11.31.31.9
Mentions: People living below the poverty threshold, people living in homes built in 1949 or earlier (Figure 1), or people born outside the United States had higher BLLs (Table 2). For youths, there was a significant decreasing trend for BLLs by survey year. Nonsmoking youths with SHS exposure had higher BLLs than did the group without SHS exposure in all survey years. For adults, there was again a significant decreasing trend for BLLs by survey year. The BLLs in adult smokers (19 years of age or older) were higher than the BLLs for adult nonsmokers with or without SHS exposure (Table 3).

Bottom Line: Tobacco smoke is a source of exposure to thousands of toxic chemicals including lead, a chemical of longstanding public health concern.Regression models for lead included age, race/ethnicity, poverty, survey year, sex, age of home, birth country, and, for adults, alcohol consumption.Despite remediation efforts in housing and the environment and declining smoking rates and secondhand smoke exposure in the United States, tobacco smoke continues to be a substantial source of exposure to lead in vulnerable populations and the population in general.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Office of Smoking and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341. E-mail: patricia.richter@fda.hhs.gov.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Tobacco smoke is a source of exposure to thousands of toxic chemicals including lead, a chemical of longstanding public health concern. We assessed trends in blood lead levels in youths and adults with cotinine-verified tobacco smoke exposure by using 10 years of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

Methods: Geometric mean levels of blood lead are presented for increasing levels of tobacco smoke exposure. Regression models for lead included age, race/ethnicity, poverty, survey year, sex, age of home, birth country, and, for adults, alcohol consumption. Lead levels were evaluated for smokers and nonsmokers on the basis of age of residence and occupation.

Results: Positive trend tests indicate that a linear relationship exists between smoke exposure and blood lead levels in youths and adults and that secondhand smoke exposure contributes to blood lead levels above the level caused by smoking.

Conclusion: Youths with secondhand smoke exposure had blood lead levels suggestive of the potential for adverse cognitive outcomes. Despite remediation efforts in housing and the environment and declining smoking rates and secondhand smoke exposure in the United States, tobacco smoke continues to be a substantial source of exposure to lead in vulnerable populations and the population in general.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus