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Understanding the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure using three-dimensional facial imaging.

Wetherill L, Foroud T - Alcohol Res Health (2011)

Bottom Line: However, many of the subtle features of prenatal alcohol exposure cannot be visualized using two-dimensional images.For example, CIFASD researchers can use facial measurements or shapes obtained from the three-dimensional images to predict the presence of FAS, examine associations between facial shapes and cognitive deficiencies, or better understand how the facial growth of a person with FAS compares with facial growth in someone not prenatally exposed to alcohol.Through an international consortium, CIFASD has been addressing these questions in various age groups as well as different ethnic groups.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana.

ABSTRACT
One of the (at least theoretically) most easily detectable features of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) is a distinct pattern of facial characteristics. However, in many children prenatally exposed to alcohol, these characteristics are expressed only subtly, making it difficult to correctly identify children with these disorders. To date, several studies have used conventional two-dimensional images to develop computerized programs assisting in the identification of individuals with FAS or FASD. However, many of the subtle features of prenatal alcohol exposure cannot be visualized using two-dimensional images. Therefore, researchers at the Collaborative Initiative on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (CIFASD; http://www.cifasd.org) have been using a special camera system that can generate three-dimensional images, which allows them to explore the advantages of using such images to identify subtle facial differences between individuals who were exposed to alcohol prenatally and individuals who were not. This approach may help investigators and clinicians to better understand the complications that may arise from prenatal alcohol exposure. For example, CIFASD researchers can use facial measurements or shapes obtained from the three-dimensional images to predict the presence of FAS, examine associations between facial shapes and cognitive deficiencies, or better understand how the facial growth of a person with FAS compares with facial growth in someone not prenatally exposed to alcohol. Through an international consortium, CIFASD has been addressing these questions in various age groups as well as different ethnic groups.

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Anthropometric measurements. The 16 anthropometric measurements obtained from each of the three-dimensional images.
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f4-arh-34-1-38: Anthropometric measurements. The 16 anthropometric measurements obtained from each of the three-dimensional images.

Mentions: The three-dimensional images can be analyzed in several ways. One of the simpler analytic strategies is to measure the length, width, or height of various portions of the face, such as the length of the eye, width of the forehead, or height of the upper face (figure 4). CIFASD investigators have used these measurements to evaluate whether these parameters differ in people with and without prenatal alcohol exposure. The analyses found that by using a subset of these measurements as predictor variables in a statistical method called logistic regression, one can accurately classify children in a given sample into two groups: those with FAS and those who were not exposed to alcohol prenatally. For example, when studying children from Cape Town, South Africa, CIFASD researchers identified a set of measurements that could correctly classify 94 percent of children with FAS and 91 percent of children without prenatal alcohol exposure (Moore et al. 2007). Using the same statistical approach, but with a group of children from Helsinki, Finland, the researchers also identified a set of facial measurements that correctly classified 96 percent of children with FAS and 91 percent of those without prenatal alcohol exposure. Interestingly, the sets of facial measurements that best identified the respective groups differed between the South African and Finnish samples. However, in both groups small eye width was one of the parameters that helped to predict FAS (Moore et al. 2007). These results support previous observations that small eye widths are a key feature distinguishing individuals with FAS and without prenatal alcohol exposure.


Understanding the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure using three-dimensional facial imaging.

Wetherill L, Foroud T - Alcohol Res Health (2011)

Anthropometric measurements. The 16 anthropometric measurements obtained from each of the three-dimensional images.
© Copyright Policy - public-domain
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3860560&req=5

f4-arh-34-1-38: Anthropometric measurements. The 16 anthropometric measurements obtained from each of the three-dimensional images.
Mentions: The three-dimensional images can be analyzed in several ways. One of the simpler analytic strategies is to measure the length, width, or height of various portions of the face, such as the length of the eye, width of the forehead, or height of the upper face (figure 4). CIFASD investigators have used these measurements to evaluate whether these parameters differ in people with and without prenatal alcohol exposure. The analyses found that by using a subset of these measurements as predictor variables in a statistical method called logistic regression, one can accurately classify children in a given sample into two groups: those with FAS and those who were not exposed to alcohol prenatally. For example, when studying children from Cape Town, South Africa, CIFASD researchers identified a set of measurements that could correctly classify 94 percent of children with FAS and 91 percent of children without prenatal alcohol exposure (Moore et al. 2007). Using the same statistical approach, but with a group of children from Helsinki, Finland, the researchers also identified a set of facial measurements that correctly classified 96 percent of children with FAS and 91 percent of those without prenatal alcohol exposure. Interestingly, the sets of facial measurements that best identified the respective groups differed between the South African and Finnish samples. However, in both groups small eye width was one of the parameters that helped to predict FAS (Moore et al. 2007). These results support previous observations that small eye widths are a key feature distinguishing individuals with FAS and without prenatal alcohol exposure.

Bottom Line: However, many of the subtle features of prenatal alcohol exposure cannot be visualized using two-dimensional images.For example, CIFASD researchers can use facial measurements or shapes obtained from the three-dimensional images to predict the presence of FAS, examine associations between facial shapes and cognitive deficiencies, or better understand how the facial growth of a person with FAS compares with facial growth in someone not prenatally exposed to alcohol.Through an international consortium, CIFASD has been addressing these questions in various age groups as well as different ethnic groups.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana.

ABSTRACT
One of the (at least theoretically) most easily detectable features of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) is a distinct pattern of facial characteristics. However, in many children prenatally exposed to alcohol, these characteristics are expressed only subtly, making it difficult to correctly identify children with these disorders. To date, several studies have used conventional two-dimensional images to develop computerized programs assisting in the identification of individuals with FAS or FASD. However, many of the subtle features of prenatal alcohol exposure cannot be visualized using two-dimensional images. Therefore, researchers at the Collaborative Initiative on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (CIFASD; http://www.cifasd.org) have been using a special camera system that can generate three-dimensional images, which allows them to explore the advantages of using such images to identify subtle facial differences between individuals who were exposed to alcohol prenatally and individuals who were not. This approach may help investigators and clinicians to better understand the complications that may arise from prenatal alcohol exposure. For example, CIFASD researchers can use facial measurements or shapes obtained from the three-dimensional images to predict the presence of FAS, examine associations between facial shapes and cognitive deficiencies, or better understand how the facial growth of a person with FAS compares with facial growth in someone not prenatally exposed to alcohol. Through an international consortium, CIFASD has been addressing these questions in various age groups as well as different ethnic groups.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus