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Understanding the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure using three-dimensional facial imaging.

Wetherill L, Foroud T - Alcohol Res Health (2011)

Bottom Line: However, many of the subtle features of prenatal alcohol exposure cannot be visualized using two-dimensional images.For example, CIFASD researchers can use facial measurements or shapes obtained from the three-dimensional images to predict the presence of FAS, examine associations between facial shapes and cognitive deficiencies, or better understand how the facial growth of a person with FAS compares with facial growth in someone not prenatally exposed to alcohol.Through an international consortium, CIFASD has been addressing these questions in various age groups as well as different ethnic groups.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana.

ABSTRACT
One of the (at least theoretically) most easily detectable features of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) is a distinct pattern of facial characteristics. However, in many children prenatally exposed to alcohol, these characteristics are expressed only subtly, making it difficult to correctly identify children with these disorders. To date, several studies have used conventional two-dimensional images to develop computerized programs assisting in the identification of individuals with FAS or FASD. However, many of the subtle features of prenatal alcohol exposure cannot be visualized using two-dimensional images. Therefore, researchers at the Collaborative Initiative on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (CIFASD; http://www.cifasd.org) have been using a special camera system that can generate three-dimensional images, which allows them to explore the advantages of using such images to identify subtle facial differences between individuals who were exposed to alcohol prenatally and individuals who were not. This approach may help investigators and clinicians to better understand the complications that may arise from prenatal alcohol exposure. For example, CIFASD researchers can use facial measurements or shapes obtained from the three-dimensional images to predict the presence of FAS, examine associations between facial shapes and cognitive deficiencies, or better understand how the facial growth of a person with FAS compares with facial growth in someone not prenatally exposed to alcohol. Through an international consortium, CIFASD has been addressing these questions in various age groups as well as different ethnic groups.

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Three-dimensional image. Example of the final three-dimensional image obtained from the camera.
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f3-arh-34-1-38: Three-dimensional image. Example of the final three-dimensional image obtained from the camera.

Mentions: The camera system used to obtain the three-dimensional images consists of two pods attached at each end of a long arm that is mounted to a standard camera tripod (see figure 1). Each pod contains three cameras and two flashes so that a total of six photographs are generated. These six photographs, which eventually comprise the three-dimensional image, are obtained in 1.5 milliseconds, similar to normal flash photography. The attached laptop computer system uses special software to automatically stitch together the six photographs (see figure 2), generating the final three-dimensional image in less than 2 minutes (see figure 3). Although the camera system looks big and bulky, it can easily be taken apart and packed into two cases. As a result, CIFASD researchers have the ability to transport the camera anywhere in the world, take three-dimensional images of dozens of children within a day, and electronically transfer these images to a secure computer for analysis.


Understanding the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure using three-dimensional facial imaging.

Wetherill L, Foroud T - Alcohol Res Health (2011)

Three-dimensional image. Example of the final three-dimensional image obtained from the camera.
© Copyright Policy - public-domain
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3860560&req=5

f3-arh-34-1-38: Three-dimensional image. Example of the final three-dimensional image obtained from the camera.
Mentions: The camera system used to obtain the three-dimensional images consists of two pods attached at each end of a long arm that is mounted to a standard camera tripod (see figure 1). Each pod contains three cameras and two flashes so that a total of six photographs are generated. These six photographs, which eventually comprise the three-dimensional image, are obtained in 1.5 milliseconds, similar to normal flash photography. The attached laptop computer system uses special software to automatically stitch together the six photographs (see figure 2), generating the final three-dimensional image in less than 2 minutes (see figure 3). Although the camera system looks big and bulky, it can easily be taken apart and packed into two cases. As a result, CIFASD researchers have the ability to transport the camera anywhere in the world, take three-dimensional images of dozens of children within a day, and electronically transfer these images to a secure computer for analysis.

Bottom Line: However, many of the subtle features of prenatal alcohol exposure cannot be visualized using two-dimensional images.For example, CIFASD researchers can use facial measurements or shapes obtained from the three-dimensional images to predict the presence of FAS, examine associations between facial shapes and cognitive deficiencies, or better understand how the facial growth of a person with FAS compares with facial growth in someone not prenatally exposed to alcohol.Through an international consortium, CIFASD has been addressing these questions in various age groups as well as different ethnic groups.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana.

ABSTRACT
One of the (at least theoretically) most easily detectable features of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) is a distinct pattern of facial characteristics. However, in many children prenatally exposed to alcohol, these characteristics are expressed only subtly, making it difficult to correctly identify children with these disorders. To date, several studies have used conventional two-dimensional images to develop computerized programs assisting in the identification of individuals with FAS or FASD. However, many of the subtle features of prenatal alcohol exposure cannot be visualized using two-dimensional images. Therefore, researchers at the Collaborative Initiative on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (CIFASD; http://www.cifasd.org) have been using a special camera system that can generate three-dimensional images, which allows them to explore the advantages of using such images to identify subtle facial differences between individuals who were exposed to alcohol prenatally and individuals who were not. This approach may help investigators and clinicians to better understand the complications that may arise from prenatal alcohol exposure. For example, CIFASD researchers can use facial measurements or shapes obtained from the three-dimensional images to predict the presence of FAS, examine associations between facial shapes and cognitive deficiencies, or better understand how the facial growth of a person with FAS compares with facial growth in someone not prenatally exposed to alcohol. Through an international consortium, CIFASD has been addressing these questions in various age groups as well as different ethnic groups.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus