Limits...
Integrating HIV/AIDS and alcohol research.

Bryant KJ, Nelson S, Braithwaite RS, Roach D - Alcohol Res Health (2010)

Bottom Line: Alcohol abuse also increases the risk of HIV infection by promoting risky behaviors and counteracting efforts to minimize the risk of infection, prevent transmission of the virus to others once exposure has occurred, and reduce the risk of progression and organ or tissue injury after infection.Moreover, alcohol may interact with ART medications and exacerbate adverse effects of these medications.Future research needs to better integrate behavioral and biological research to identify strategies to prevent the spread of HIV infection in alcohol-abusing populations as well as focus on translational research to effectively implement promising approaches on a large scale.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Bethesda, Maryland.

ABSTRACT
Many people at risk for or already infected with HIV abuse alcohol, contributing to the difficulties in preventing the spread of the infection and treating infected patients. Thus, alcohol-abusing patients may delay testing for HIV, accessing appropriate medical care, and initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART), which may hasten disease progression to full-blown AIDS. Alcohol abuse also increases the risk of HIV infection by promoting risky behaviors and counteracting efforts to minimize the risk of infection, prevent transmission of the virus to others once exposure has occurred, and reduce the risk of progression and organ or tissue injury after infection. In HIV-infected people undergoing treatment, concurrent alcohol abuse often renders treatment ineffective because patients frequently fail to adhere to the strict treatment regimens necessary to achieve control of the infection. Moreover, alcohol may interact with ART medications and exacerbate adverse effects of these medications. Future research needs to better integrate behavioral and biological research to identify strategies to prevent the spread of HIV infection in alcohol-abusing populations as well as focus on translational research to effectively implement promising approaches on a large scale.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

General and specific risk factors for infection. Multiple factors influenced by the use of alcohol increase the risk for HIV infection. These factors interact to increase both the general and specific contexts for infection events. Social networks, as well as demographic, psychosocial, and biological characteristics are general factors often used to target preventive interventions among alcohol users. However, these categories and “compartments” interact to influence mediators of increasing risk at the social level, such as social norms and economic inducers of HIV risk and individual-level factors related to disinhibition and biological susceptibility for infection. Scribner and colleagues (pp. 179–183, in this issue) and Kalichman (pp. 184–194, in this issue) describe the importance of these multilevel models for prevention.
© Copyright Policy - public-domain
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3860513&req=5

f1-arh-33-3-167: General and specific risk factors for infection. Multiple factors influenced by the use of alcohol increase the risk for HIV infection. These factors interact to increase both the general and specific contexts for infection events. Social networks, as well as demographic, psychosocial, and biological characteristics are general factors often used to target preventive interventions among alcohol users. However, these categories and “compartments” interact to influence mediators of increasing risk at the social level, such as social norms and economic inducers of HIV risk and individual-level factors related to disinhibition and biological susceptibility for infection. Scribner and colleagues (pp. 179–183, in this issue) and Kalichman (pp. 184–194, in this issue) describe the importance of these multilevel models for prevention.

Mentions: Reducing people’s risk of being exposed to HIV infection obviously is important for stemming the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the United States and internationally. One approach to achieving this is using ecological models that synthesize the influences of a variety of factors underlying exposure to people with active HIV infection, particularly if they represent the interactions between these factors and alcohol use. Among the factors to be considered are the following (see figure 1 in the sidebar):


Integrating HIV/AIDS and alcohol research.

Bryant KJ, Nelson S, Braithwaite RS, Roach D - Alcohol Res Health (2010)

General and specific risk factors for infection. Multiple factors influenced by the use of alcohol increase the risk for HIV infection. These factors interact to increase both the general and specific contexts for infection events. Social networks, as well as demographic, psychosocial, and biological characteristics are general factors often used to target preventive interventions among alcohol users. However, these categories and “compartments” interact to influence mediators of increasing risk at the social level, such as social norms and economic inducers of HIV risk and individual-level factors related to disinhibition and biological susceptibility for infection. Scribner and colleagues (pp. 179–183, in this issue) and Kalichman (pp. 184–194, in this issue) describe the importance of these multilevel models for prevention.
© Copyright Policy - public-domain
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3860513&req=5

f1-arh-33-3-167: General and specific risk factors for infection. Multiple factors influenced by the use of alcohol increase the risk for HIV infection. These factors interact to increase both the general and specific contexts for infection events. Social networks, as well as demographic, psychosocial, and biological characteristics are general factors often used to target preventive interventions among alcohol users. However, these categories and “compartments” interact to influence mediators of increasing risk at the social level, such as social norms and economic inducers of HIV risk and individual-level factors related to disinhibition and biological susceptibility for infection. Scribner and colleagues (pp. 179–183, in this issue) and Kalichman (pp. 184–194, in this issue) describe the importance of these multilevel models for prevention.
Mentions: Reducing people’s risk of being exposed to HIV infection obviously is important for stemming the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the United States and internationally. One approach to achieving this is using ecological models that synthesize the influences of a variety of factors underlying exposure to people with active HIV infection, particularly if they represent the interactions between these factors and alcohol use. Among the factors to be considered are the following (see figure 1 in the sidebar):

Bottom Line: Alcohol abuse also increases the risk of HIV infection by promoting risky behaviors and counteracting efforts to minimize the risk of infection, prevent transmission of the virus to others once exposure has occurred, and reduce the risk of progression and organ or tissue injury after infection.Moreover, alcohol may interact with ART medications and exacerbate adverse effects of these medications.Future research needs to better integrate behavioral and biological research to identify strategies to prevent the spread of HIV infection in alcohol-abusing populations as well as focus on translational research to effectively implement promising approaches on a large scale.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Bethesda, Maryland.

ABSTRACT
Many people at risk for or already infected with HIV abuse alcohol, contributing to the difficulties in preventing the spread of the infection and treating infected patients. Thus, alcohol-abusing patients may delay testing for HIV, accessing appropriate medical care, and initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART), which may hasten disease progression to full-blown AIDS. Alcohol abuse also increases the risk of HIV infection by promoting risky behaviors and counteracting efforts to minimize the risk of infection, prevent transmission of the virus to others once exposure has occurred, and reduce the risk of progression and organ or tissue injury after infection. In HIV-infected people undergoing treatment, concurrent alcohol abuse often renders treatment ineffective because patients frequently fail to adhere to the strict treatment regimens necessary to achieve control of the infection. Moreover, alcohol may interact with ART medications and exacerbate adverse effects of these medications. Future research needs to better integrate behavioral and biological research to identify strategies to prevent the spread of HIV infection in alcohol-abusing populations as well as focus on translational research to effectively implement promising approaches on a large scale.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus