Limits...
Systems genetics of alcoholism.

Sloan CD, Sayarath V, Moore JH - Alcohol Res Health (2008)

Bottom Line: Systems genetics is the study of all genetic variations, their interactions with each other (i.e., epistasis), their interactions with the environment (i.e., plastic reaction norms), their relationship with interindividual variation in traits that are influenced by many genes and contribute to disease susceptibility (i.e., intermediate quantitative traits or endophenotypes) defined at different levels of hierarchical biochemical and physiological systems, and their relationship with health and disease. (An endophenotype is a genetically determined trait [i.e., phenotype] that is not immediately visible but may contribute to the susceptibility to develop a particular behavior or syndrome.See the glossary, p. 84, for descriptions of other technical terms used in this article.) The goal of systems genetics is to provide an understanding of the complex relationship between the genome and disease by investigating intermediate biological processes.After investigating main effects, the first step in a systems genetics approach, as described here, is to search for gene-gene (i.e., epistatic) reactions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Section of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Department of Community and Family Medicine, Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, New Hampshire.

ABSTRACT
Alcoholism is a common disease resulting from the complex interaction of genetic, social, and environmental factors. Interest in the high heritability of alcoholism has resulted in many studies of how single genes, as well as an individual's entire genetic content (i.e., genome) and the proteins expressed by the genome, influence alcoholism risk. The use of large-scale methods to identify and characterize genetic material (i.e., high-throughput technologies) for data gathering and analysis recently has made it possible to investigate the complexity of the genetic architecture of susceptibility to common diseases such as alcoholism on a systems level. Systems genetics is the study of all genetic variations, their interactions with each other (i.e., epistasis), their interactions with the environment (i.e., plastic reaction norms), their relationship with interindividual variation in traits that are influenced by many genes and contribute to disease susceptibility (i.e., intermediate quantitative traits or endophenotypes) defined at different levels of hierarchical biochemical and physiological systems, and their relationship with health and disease. (An endophenotype is a genetically determined trait [i.e., phenotype] that is not immediately visible but may contribute to the susceptibility to develop a particular behavior or syndrome. See the glossary, p. 84, for descriptions of other technical terms used in this article.) The goal of systems genetics is to provide an understanding of the complex relationship between the genome and disease by investigating intermediate biological processes. After investigating main effects, the first step in a systems genetics approach, as described here, is to search for gene-gene (i.e., epistatic) reactions.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Biological epistasis is a measure of gene interaction occurring within a single organism, via gene–gene, gene–protein, and protein–protein interaction. Statistical epistasis is a detectable measure of epistasis at the population level.
© Copyright Policy - public-domain
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3860445&req=5

f1-arh-31-1-14: Biological epistasis is a measure of gene interaction occurring within a single organism, via gene–gene, gene–protein, and protein–protein interaction. Statistical epistasis is a detectable measure of epistasis at the population level.

Mentions: Biological epistasis results from physical interactions among biomolecules (e.g., DNA, RNA, proteins, enzymes, etc.) and occurs at the cellular level in an individual. This type of epistasis is what Bateson (1909) had in mind when he coined the term. Statistical epistasis was first defined by Fisher (1918) as a mathematical phenomenon that occurs at the population level and is realized when there is interindividual variation in DNA sequences. Figure 1 illustrates the conceptual divide between biological and statistical epistasis that is important to understand in order to make biological inferences from statistical results (Moore and Williams 2005).


Systems genetics of alcoholism.

Sloan CD, Sayarath V, Moore JH - Alcohol Res Health (2008)

Biological epistasis is a measure of gene interaction occurring within a single organism, via gene–gene, gene–protein, and protein–protein interaction. Statistical epistasis is a detectable measure of epistasis at the population level.
© Copyright Policy - public-domain
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3860445&req=5

f1-arh-31-1-14: Biological epistasis is a measure of gene interaction occurring within a single organism, via gene–gene, gene–protein, and protein–protein interaction. Statistical epistasis is a detectable measure of epistasis at the population level.
Mentions: Biological epistasis results from physical interactions among biomolecules (e.g., DNA, RNA, proteins, enzymes, etc.) and occurs at the cellular level in an individual. This type of epistasis is what Bateson (1909) had in mind when he coined the term. Statistical epistasis was first defined by Fisher (1918) as a mathematical phenomenon that occurs at the population level and is realized when there is interindividual variation in DNA sequences. Figure 1 illustrates the conceptual divide between biological and statistical epistasis that is important to understand in order to make biological inferences from statistical results (Moore and Williams 2005).

Bottom Line: Systems genetics is the study of all genetic variations, their interactions with each other (i.e., epistasis), their interactions with the environment (i.e., plastic reaction norms), their relationship with interindividual variation in traits that are influenced by many genes and contribute to disease susceptibility (i.e., intermediate quantitative traits or endophenotypes) defined at different levels of hierarchical biochemical and physiological systems, and their relationship with health and disease. (An endophenotype is a genetically determined trait [i.e., phenotype] that is not immediately visible but may contribute to the susceptibility to develop a particular behavior or syndrome.See the glossary, p. 84, for descriptions of other technical terms used in this article.) The goal of systems genetics is to provide an understanding of the complex relationship between the genome and disease by investigating intermediate biological processes.After investigating main effects, the first step in a systems genetics approach, as described here, is to search for gene-gene (i.e., epistatic) reactions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Section of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Department of Community and Family Medicine, Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, New Hampshire.

ABSTRACT
Alcoholism is a common disease resulting from the complex interaction of genetic, social, and environmental factors. Interest in the high heritability of alcoholism has resulted in many studies of how single genes, as well as an individual's entire genetic content (i.e., genome) and the proteins expressed by the genome, influence alcoholism risk. The use of large-scale methods to identify and characterize genetic material (i.e., high-throughput technologies) for data gathering and analysis recently has made it possible to investigate the complexity of the genetic architecture of susceptibility to common diseases such as alcoholism on a systems level. Systems genetics is the study of all genetic variations, their interactions with each other (i.e., epistasis), their interactions with the environment (i.e., plastic reaction norms), their relationship with interindividual variation in traits that are influenced by many genes and contribute to disease susceptibility (i.e., intermediate quantitative traits or endophenotypes) defined at different levels of hierarchical biochemical and physiological systems, and their relationship with health and disease. (An endophenotype is a genetically determined trait [i.e., phenotype] that is not immediately visible but may contribute to the susceptibility to develop a particular behavior or syndrome. See the glossary, p. 84, for descriptions of other technical terms used in this article.) The goal of systems genetics is to provide an understanding of the complex relationship between the genome and disease by investigating intermediate biological processes. After investigating main effects, the first step in a systems genetics approach, as described here, is to search for gene-gene (i.e., epistatic) reactions.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus