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Resilience to meet the challenge of addiction: psychobiology and clinical considerations.

Alim TN, Lawson WB, Feder A, Iacoviello BM, Saxena S, Bailey CR, Greene AM, Neumeister A - Alcohol Res (2012)

Bottom Line: Multisystem adaptations in brain, body, behavioral, and social function may contribute to a dysregulated physiological state that is maintained beyond the homeostatic range.In addition, chronic abuse of substances leads to an altered set point across multiple systems.Resilience can be defined as the absence of psychopathology despite exposure to high stress and reflects a person's ability to cope successfully in the face of adversity, demonstrating adaptive psychological and physiological stress responses.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Howard University, Washington, DC, USA.

ABSTRACT
Acute and chronic stress-related mechanisms play an important role in the development of addiction and its chronic, relapsing nature. Multisystem adaptations in brain, body, behavioral, and social function may contribute to a dysregulated physiological state that is maintained beyond the homeostatic range. In addition, chronic abuse of substances leads to an altered set point across multiple systems. Resilience can be defined as the absence of psychopathology despite exposure to high stress and reflects a person's ability to cope successfully in the face of adversity, demonstrating adaptive psychological and physiological stress responses. The study of resilience can be approached by examining interindividual stress responsibility at multiple phenotypic levels, ranging from psychological differences in the way people cope with stress to differences in neurochemical or neural circuitry function. The ultimate goal of such research is the development of strategies and interventions to enhance resilience and coping in the face of stress and prevent the onset of addiction problems or relapse.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Alterations in serotonin 1B receptor (5HT1BR) function might contribute to alcohol dependence by influencing not only serotonin (5HT) input to the ventral striatum via the receptors’ role as 5HT terminal autoreceptors,1 but also dopaminergic input to the striatum via the role of these receptors as heteroreceptors2 on GABA terminals within the ventral tegmental area, and glutamatergic activity within the ventral striatum via heteroreceptors on corticofugal projections.1 Autoreceptor: A site on a neuron that binds the neurotransmitter released by that neuron, which then regulates the neuron’s activity.2 Heteroreceptor: A site on a neuron that binds a modulatory neuroregulator other than that released by the neuron.
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f2-arcr-34-4-506: Alterations in serotonin 1B receptor (5HT1BR) function might contribute to alcohol dependence by influencing not only serotonin (5HT) input to the ventral striatum via the receptors’ role as 5HT terminal autoreceptors,1 but also dopaminergic input to the striatum via the role of these receptors as heteroreceptors2 on GABA terminals within the ventral tegmental area, and glutamatergic activity within the ventral striatum via heteroreceptors on corticofugal projections.1 Autoreceptor: A site on a neuron that binds the neurotransmitter released by that neuron, which then regulates the neuron’s activity.2 Heteroreceptor: A site on a neuron that binds a modulatory neuroregulator other than that released by the neuron.

Mentions: The 5-HT system is extremely complex, including at least 14 receptor subtypes. Of these receptors, the 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2A, and 5-HT2C receptors are well understood through research on anxiety regulation in both animals and humans (Krystal and Neumeister 2009). The 5-HT1A receptor is thought to counteract the deleterious effects of 5-HT2A receptor activation (i.e., the disruption of brain cell creation), mediated by increased release of the neurotransmitter glutamate and direct glucocorticoid effects (Hoebel et al 2007). Restrained function of another 5-HT receptor, 5HT1B, might be central to resilient stress responses by enhancing synaptic availability of 5-HT in the amygdala and other cortical regions as well as promoting dopamine release in the ventral striatum (Clark and Neumaier 2001; Krystal and Neumeister 2009; Sari 2004) (see figure 2).


Resilience to meet the challenge of addiction: psychobiology and clinical considerations.

Alim TN, Lawson WB, Feder A, Iacoviello BM, Saxena S, Bailey CR, Greene AM, Neumeister A - Alcohol Res (2012)

Alterations in serotonin 1B receptor (5HT1BR) function might contribute to alcohol dependence by influencing not only serotonin (5HT) input to the ventral striatum via the receptors’ role as 5HT terminal autoreceptors,1 but also dopaminergic input to the striatum via the role of these receptors as heteroreceptors2 on GABA terminals within the ventral tegmental area, and glutamatergic activity within the ventral striatum via heteroreceptors on corticofugal projections.1 Autoreceptor: A site on a neuron that binds the neurotransmitter released by that neuron, which then regulates the neuron’s activity.2 Heteroreceptor: A site on a neuron that binds a modulatory neuroregulator other than that released by the neuron.
© Copyright Policy - public-domain
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3860393&req=5

f2-arcr-34-4-506: Alterations in serotonin 1B receptor (5HT1BR) function might contribute to alcohol dependence by influencing not only serotonin (5HT) input to the ventral striatum via the receptors’ role as 5HT terminal autoreceptors,1 but also dopaminergic input to the striatum via the role of these receptors as heteroreceptors2 on GABA terminals within the ventral tegmental area, and glutamatergic activity within the ventral striatum via heteroreceptors on corticofugal projections.1 Autoreceptor: A site on a neuron that binds the neurotransmitter released by that neuron, which then regulates the neuron’s activity.2 Heteroreceptor: A site on a neuron that binds a modulatory neuroregulator other than that released by the neuron.
Mentions: The 5-HT system is extremely complex, including at least 14 receptor subtypes. Of these receptors, the 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2A, and 5-HT2C receptors are well understood through research on anxiety regulation in both animals and humans (Krystal and Neumeister 2009). The 5-HT1A receptor is thought to counteract the deleterious effects of 5-HT2A receptor activation (i.e., the disruption of brain cell creation), mediated by increased release of the neurotransmitter glutamate and direct glucocorticoid effects (Hoebel et al 2007). Restrained function of another 5-HT receptor, 5HT1B, might be central to resilient stress responses by enhancing synaptic availability of 5-HT in the amygdala and other cortical regions as well as promoting dopamine release in the ventral striatum (Clark and Neumaier 2001; Krystal and Neumeister 2009; Sari 2004) (see figure 2).

Bottom Line: Multisystem adaptations in brain, body, behavioral, and social function may contribute to a dysregulated physiological state that is maintained beyond the homeostatic range.In addition, chronic abuse of substances leads to an altered set point across multiple systems.Resilience can be defined as the absence of psychopathology despite exposure to high stress and reflects a person's ability to cope successfully in the face of adversity, demonstrating adaptive psychological and physiological stress responses.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Howard University, Washington, DC, USA.

ABSTRACT
Acute and chronic stress-related mechanisms play an important role in the development of addiction and its chronic, relapsing nature. Multisystem adaptations in brain, body, behavioral, and social function may contribute to a dysregulated physiological state that is maintained beyond the homeostatic range. In addition, chronic abuse of substances leads to an altered set point across multiple systems. Resilience can be defined as the absence of psychopathology despite exposure to high stress and reflects a person's ability to cope successfully in the face of adversity, demonstrating adaptive psychological and physiological stress responses. The study of resilience can be approached by examining interindividual stress responsibility at multiple phenotypic levels, ranging from psychological differences in the way people cope with stress to differences in neurochemical or neural circuitry function. The ultimate goal of such research is the development of strategies and interventions to enhance resilience and coping in the face of stress and prevent the onset of addiction problems or relapse.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus