Limits...
Resilience to meet the challenge of addiction: psychobiology and clinical considerations.

Alim TN, Lawson WB, Feder A, Iacoviello BM, Saxena S, Bailey CR, Greene AM, Neumeister A - Alcohol Res (2012)

Bottom Line: Multisystem adaptations in brain, body, behavioral, and social function may contribute to a dysregulated physiological state that is maintained beyond the homeostatic range.In addition, chronic abuse of substances leads to an altered set point across multiple systems.Resilience can be defined as the absence of psychopathology despite exposure to high stress and reflects a person's ability to cope successfully in the face of adversity, demonstrating adaptive psychological and physiological stress responses.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Howard University, Washington, DC, USA.

ABSTRACT
Acute and chronic stress-related mechanisms play an important role in the development of addiction and its chronic, relapsing nature. Multisystem adaptations in brain, body, behavioral, and social function may contribute to a dysregulated physiological state that is maintained beyond the homeostatic range. In addition, chronic abuse of substances leads to an altered set point across multiple systems. Resilience can be defined as the absence of psychopathology despite exposure to high stress and reflects a person's ability to cope successfully in the face of adversity, demonstrating adaptive psychological and physiological stress responses. The study of resilience can be approached by examining interindividual stress responsibility at multiple phenotypic levels, ranging from psychological differences in the way people cope with stress to differences in neurochemical or neural circuitry function. The ultimate goal of such research is the development of strategies and interventions to enhance resilience and coping in the face of stress and prevent the onset of addiction problems or relapse.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) are the principle chemical messengers employed in central and peripheral sympathetic synapses, and the human NE transporter rapidly clears NE and DA from the synaptic cleft via efficient transport system-attenuating signaling, recycling 90 percent of these synaptic monoamines. NE neurons innervate nearly all parts of the neuroaxis, with the locus coeruleus (LC) being responsible for most of the NE in the brain. NE exerts neuromodulatory effects on the cellular activity of post-synaptic target neurons in many brain circuits, thereby moderating synaptic transmission in target circuits including the thalamus, prefrontal-cortex (PFC), ventral striatum (via PFC), and amygdala, which have been implicated in substance use disorders. The widespread and divergent anatomical organization positions the NE system to be involved in widely varying functions including responses to stress, which alters both the electrophysiological activity of NE neurons in the LC and the release of NE in the terminal regions of these cells, as well as crucial cognitive functions, including attention and arousal. NE mediates many of the adaptive and maladaptive consequences of stress exposure, implicating this system in a variety of abnormal behaviors including alcohol dependence.
© Copyright Policy - public-domain
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3860393&req=5

f1-arcr-34-4-506: Norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) are the principle chemical messengers employed in central and peripheral sympathetic synapses, and the human NE transporter rapidly clears NE and DA from the synaptic cleft via efficient transport system-attenuating signaling, recycling 90 percent of these synaptic monoamines. NE neurons innervate nearly all parts of the neuroaxis, with the locus coeruleus (LC) being responsible for most of the NE in the brain. NE exerts neuromodulatory effects on the cellular activity of post-synaptic target neurons in many brain circuits, thereby moderating synaptic transmission in target circuits including the thalamus, prefrontal-cortex (PFC), ventral striatum (via PFC), and amygdala, which have been implicated in substance use disorders. The widespread and divergent anatomical organization positions the NE system to be involved in widely varying functions including responses to stress, which alters both the electrophysiological activity of NE neurons in the LC and the release of NE in the terminal regions of these cells, as well as crucial cognitive functions, including attention and arousal. NE mediates many of the adaptive and maladaptive consequences of stress exposure, implicating this system in a variety of abnormal behaviors including alcohol dependence.

Mentions: “Allostasis” refers to the dynamic process through which the body adapts to daily stressors and maintains homeostasis (Sterling and Eyer 1988). Sudden stressful events trigger the release of the “flight-or-fight” hormones (i.e., catecholamines) and other stress hormones in the brain, preparing the organism to cope with stress and avert harm. This process is mediated by a stress circuit (see figure 1), which is consistently implicated in stress-related disorders such as mood and anxiety disorders and addictive disorders. Interindividual variability in stress resilience results from differences in the coordinated stress response. This response comprises the function and interactions of numerous hormones, neurotransmitters, and neuropeptides, some of which are discussed below.


Resilience to meet the challenge of addiction: psychobiology and clinical considerations.

Alim TN, Lawson WB, Feder A, Iacoviello BM, Saxena S, Bailey CR, Greene AM, Neumeister A - Alcohol Res (2012)

Norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) are the principle chemical messengers employed in central and peripheral sympathetic synapses, and the human NE transporter rapidly clears NE and DA from the synaptic cleft via efficient transport system-attenuating signaling, recycling 90 percent of these synaptic monoamines. NE neurons innervate nearly all parts of the neuroaxis, with the locus coeruleus (LC) being responsible for most of the NE in the brain. NE exerts neuromodulatory effects on the cellular activity of post-synaptic target neurons in many brain circuits, thereby moderating synaptic transmission in target circuits including the thalamus, prefrontal-cortex (PFC), ventral striatum (via PFC), and amygdala, which have been implicated in substance use disorders. The widespread and divergent anatomical organization positions the NE system to be involved in widely varying functions including responses to stress, which alters both the electrophysiological activity of NE neurons in the LC and the release of NE in the terminal regions of these cells, as well as crucial cognitive functions, including attention and arousal. NE mediates many of the adaptive and maladaptive consequences of stress exposure, implicating this system in a variety of abnormal behaviors including alcohol dependence.
© Copyright Policy - public-domain
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3860393&req=5

f1-arcr-34-4-506: Norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) are the principle chemical messengers employed in central and peripheral sympathetic synapses, and the human NE transporter rapidly clears NE and DA from the synaptic cleft via efficient transport system-attenuating signaling, recycling 90 percent of these synaptic monoamines. NE neurons innervate nearly all parts of the neuroaxis, with the locus coeruleus (LC) being responsible for most of the NE in the brain. NE exerts neuromodulatory effects on the cellular activity of post-synaptic target neurons in many brain circuits, thereby moderating synaptic transmission in target circuits including the thalamus, prefrontal-cortex (PFC), ventral striatum (via PFC), and amygdala, which have been implicated in substance use disorders. The widespread and divergent anatomical organization positions the NE system to be involved in widely varying functions including responses to stress, which alters both the electrophysiological activity of NE neurons in the LC and the release of NE in the terminal regions of these cells, as well as crucial cognitive functions, including attention and arousal. NE mediates many of the adaptive and maladaptive consequences of stress exposure, implicating this system in a variety of abnormal behaviors including alcohol dependence.
Mentions: “Allostasis” refers to the dynamic process through which the body adapts to daily stressors and maintains homeostasis (Sterling and Eyer 1988). Sudden stressful events trigger the release of the “flight-or-fight” hormones (i.e., catecholamines) and other stress hormones in the brain, preparing the organism to cope with stress and avert harm. This process is mediated by a stress circuit (see figure 1), which is consistently implicated in stress-related disorders such as mood and anxiety disorders and addictive disorders. Interindividual variability in stress resilience results from differences in the coordinated stress response. This response comprises the function and interactions of numerous hormones, neurotransmitters, and neuropeptides, some of which are discussed below.

Bottom Line: Multisystem adaptations in brain, body, behavioral, and social function may contribute to a dysregulated physiological state that is maintained beyond the homeostatic range.In addition, chronic abuse of substances leads to an altered set point across multiple systems.Resilience can be defined as the absence of psychopathology despite exposure to high stress and reflects a person's ability to cope successfully in the face of adversity, demonstrating adaptive psychological and physiological stress responses.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Howard University, Washington, DC, USA.

ABSTRACT
Acute and chronic stress-related mechanisms play an important role in the development of addiction and its chronic, relapsing nature. Multisystem adaptations in brain, body, behavioral, and social function may contribute to a dysregulated physiological state that is maintained beyond the homeostatic range. In addition, chronic abuse of substances leads to an altered set point across multiple systems. Resilience can be defined as the absence of psychopathology despite exposure to high stress and reflects a person's ability to cope successfully in the face of adversity, demonstrating adaptive psychological and physiological stress responses. The study of resilience can be approached by examining interindividual stress responsibility at multiple phenotypic levels, ranging from psychological differences in the way people cope with stress to differences in neurochemical or neural circuitry function. The ultimate goal of such research is the development of strategies and interventions to enhance resilience and coping in the face of stress and prevent the onset of addiction problems or relapse.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus