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Different Frontal Involvement in ALS and PLS Revealed by Stroop Event-Related Potentials and Reaction Times.

Amato N, Riva N, Cursi M, Martins-Silva A, Martinelli V, Comola M, Fazio R, Comi G, Leocani L - Front Aging Neurosci (2013)

Bottom Line: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients committed more errors in the execution of the task but they were not slower, whereas PLS patients did not show reduced accuracy, despite a slowing of reaction times (RTs).ALS had decreased frontotemporal activity in the P2, P3, and N4 time windows compared to controls.These findings suggest a different pattern of psychophysiological involvement in ALS compared with PLS.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Neurological Department, Institute of Experimental Neurology (INSPE), Scientific Institute Hospital San Raffaele, University Vita-Salute San Raffaele , Milan , Italy.

ABSTRACT

Background: A growing body of evidence suggests a link between cognitive and pathological changes in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Cognitive deficits have been investigated much less extensively in primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) than in ALS.

Objective: To investigate bioelectrical activity to Stroop test, assessing frontal function, in ALS, PLS, and control groups.

Methods: Thirty-two non-demented ALS patients, 10 non-demented PLS patients, and 27 healthy subjects were included. Twenty-nine electroencephalography channels with binaural reference were recorded during covert Stroop task performance, involving mental discrimination of the stimuli and not vocal or motor response. Group effects on event-related potentials (ERPs) latency were analyzed using statistical multivariate analysis. Topographic analysis was performed using low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA).

Results: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients committed more errors in the execution of the task but they were not slower, whereas PLS patients did not show reduced accuracy, despite a slowing of reaction times (RTs). The main ERP components were delayed in ALS, but not in PLS, compared with controls. Moreover, RTs speed but not ERP latency correlated with clinical scores. ALS had decreased frontotemporal activity in the P2, P3, and N4 time windows compared to controls.

Conclusion: These findings suggest a different pattern of psychophysiological involvement in ALS compared with PLS. The former is increasingly recognized to be a multisystems disorder, with a spectrum of executive and behavioral impairments reflecting frontotemporal dysfunction. The latter seems to mainly involve the motor system, with largely spared cognitive functions. Moreover, our results suggest that the covert version of the Stroop task used in the present study, may be useful to assess cognitive state in the very advanced stage of the disease, when other cognitive tasks are not applicable.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

LORETA non-parametric voxel-wise comparison maps between ALS and control groups in the P2 time window. Blue: significantly lower activity in ALS.
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Figure 4: LORETA non-parametric voxel-wise comparison maps between ALS and control groups in the P2 time window. Blue: significantly lower activity in ALS.

Mentions: The LORETA non-parametric voxel-wise analysis revealed significant group differences. In the P2 time window (Figure 4), the ALS group exhibited significantly decreased activation of the left superior and middle temporal gyri compared with controls. In the P3 (Figure 5) and N4 (Figure 6) time windows, ALS patients exhibited significantly reduced activation of the ACC and medial frontal gyrus compared with controls. No differences were found between PLS patients and controls.


Different Frontal Involvement in ALS and PLS Revealed by Stroop Event-Related Potentials and Reaction Times.

Amato N, Riva N, Cursi M, Martins-Silva A, Martinelli V, Comola M, Fazio R, Comi G, Leocani L - Front Aging Neurosci (2013)

LORETA non-parametric voxel-wise comparison maps between ALS and control groups in the P2 time window. Blue: significantly lower activity in ALS.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3860257&req=5

Figure 4: LORETA non-parametric voxel-wise comparison maps between ALS and control groups in the P2 time window. Blue: significantly lower activity in ALS.
Mentions: The LORETA non-parametric voxel-wise analysis revealed significant group differences. In the P2 time window (Figure 4), the ALS group exhibited significantly decreased activation of the left superior and middle temporal gyri compared with controls. In the P3 (Figure 5) and N4 (Figure 6) time windows, ALS patients exhibited significantly reduced activation of the ACC and medial frontal gyrus compared with controls. No differences were found between PLS patients and controls.

Bottom Line: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients committed more errors in the execution of the task but they were not slower, whereas PLS patients did not show reduced accuracy, despite a slowing of reaction times (RTs).ALS had decreased frontotemporal activity in the P2, P3, and N4 time windows compared to controls.These findings suggest a different pattern of psychophysiological involvement in ALS compared with PLS.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Neurological Department, Institute of Experimental Neurology (INSPE), Scientific Institute Hospital San Raffaele, University Vita-Salute San Raffaele , Milan , Italy.

ABSTRACT

Background: A growing body of evidence suggests a link between cognitive and pathological changes in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Cognitive deficits have been investigated much less extensively in primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) than in ALS.

Objective: To investigate bioelectrical activity to Stroop test, assessing frontal function, in ALS, PLS, and control groups.

Methods: Thirty-two non-demented ALS patients, 10 non-demented PLS patients, and 27 healthy subjects were included. Twenty-nine electroencephalography channels with binaural reference were recorded during covert Stroop task performance, involving mental discrimination of the stimuli and not vocal or motor response. Group effects on event-related potentials (ERPs) latency were analyzed using statistical multivariate analysis. Topographic analysis was performed using low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA).

Results: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients committed more errors in the execution of the task but they were not slower, whereas PLS patients did not show reduced accuracy, despite a slowing of reaction times (RTs). The main ERP components were delayed in ALS, but not in PLS, compared with controls. Moreover, RTs speed but not ERP latency correlated with clinical scores. ALS had decreased frontotemporal activity in the P2, P3, and N4 time windows compared to controls.

Conclusion: These findings suggest a different pattern of psychophysiological involvement in ALS compared with PLS. The former is increasingly recognized to be a multisystems disorder, with a spectrum of executive and behavioral impairments reflecting frontotemporal dysfunction. The latter seems to mainly involve the motor system, with largely spared cognitive functions. Moreover, our results suggest that the covert version of the Stroop task used in the present study, may be useful to assess cognitive state in the very advanced stage of the disease, when other cognitive tasks are not applicable.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus