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In vitro anti-Herpes simplex virus activity of crude extract of the roots of Nauclea latifolia Smith (Rubiaceae).

Donalisio M, Nana HM, Ngane RA, Gatsing D, Tchinda AT, Rovito R, Cagno V, Cagliero C, Boyom FF, Rubiolo P, Bicchi C, Lembo D - BMC Complement Altern Med (2013)

Bottom Line: The extract was found to be most active when added post-infection, with IC50 of 3.63 μg/ml.The results of this work partly justify the empirical use of N. latifolia in traditional medicine for the treatment of viral diseases.This extract could be a promising rough material for the development of a new and more effective modern anti-HSV-2 medication also active against acyclovir-resistant HSV-2 strains.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Molecular Virology, Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, University of Turin, PO Box 10043, Torino, Italy. david.lembo@unito.it.

ABSTRACT

Background: Nauclea latifolia Smith, a shrub belonging to the family Rubiaceae is a very popular medicinal plant in Cameroon and neighboring countries where it is used to treat jaundice, yellow fever, rheumatism, abdominal pains, hepatitis, diarrhea, dysentery, hypertension, as well as diabetes. The ethno-medicinal use against yellow fever, jaundice and diarrhea prompted us to investigate on the antiviral activity of the root bark of N. latifolia. In this study, HSV-2 was chosen as a viral model because of its strong impact on HIV transmission and acquisition.

Methods: The crude extract under study was prepared by maceration of air-dried and powdered roots barks of N. latifolia in CH2Cl2/MeOH (50:50) mixture for 48 hours, then it was subjected to filtration and evaporation under vacuum. A phytochemical analysis of the crude extract was performed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with a photodiode array and mass spectrometry (HPLC-PDA-ESI-qMS). The anti-HSV-2 activity was assayed in vitro by plaque reduction and virus yield assays and the major mechanism of action was investigated by virucidal and time of addition assays. Data values were compared using the Extra sum of squares F test of program GraphPad PRISM 4.

Results: The main components detected in the extract belong to the class of indole alkaloids characteristic of Nauclea genus. Strictosamide, vincosamide and pumiloside were tentatively identified together with quinovic acid glycoside. N. latifolia crude extract inhibited both acyclovir sensitive and acyclovir resistant HSV-2 strains, with IC50 values of 5.38 μg/ml for the former and 7.17 μg/ml for the latter. The extract was found to be most active when added post-infection, with IC50 of 3.63 μg/ml.

Conclusion: The results of this work partly justify the empirical use of N. latifolia in traditional medicine for the treatment of viral diseases. This extract could be a promising rough material for the development of a new and more effective modern anti-HSV-2 medication also active against acyclovir-resistant HSV-2 strains.

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HPLC-PDA analysis of Nauclea latifolia crude extract. Peaks’ number are referred to those reported in Table 1.
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Figure 1: HPLC-PDA analysis of Nauclea latifolia crude extract. Peaks’ number are referred to those reported in Table 1.

Mentions: Figure 1 reports the HPLC-PDA chromatogram of the crude extract from N. latifolia. Table 1 reports the list of the components tentatively identified by HPLC-PDA-ESI-qMS in the crude extract, together with their UV absorption maxima and MS data. Mass spectra, acquired in positive and negative ESI ionization (full scan) in general gave protonated [MH]+ or deprotonated [M–H]- molecular ions respectively and, in positive mode, some molecular ion adducts [M + Na]+ and [M + K]+. The molecular mass of an unknown component was retained only when both [MH]+ and [M–H]- ions were detected. The main components detected in the extracts belong to the class of indole alkaloids characteristic of Nauclea genus. In agreement with the literature data, strictosamide (3, RT = 21,675 min) seems to be the most abundant component in N. latifolia crude extract on the basis of its UV absorption maxima and the molecular ions in positive and negative ESI mode [27]. A less abundant component with UV maxima and molecular ions analogue to strictosamide that can be hypothesized as vincosamide (4, RT = 25,184 min) is also present. The presence of pumiloside (1, RT = 9,16 min) is confirmed by comparison of its UV maxima and molecular ions with those reported in the literature [28]. Compound 5 (RT = 34,224 min) has tentatively been identified as quinovic acid glycoside (a saponin) on the basis of its spectral data and those reported in literature [29]. Other components probably belonging to the same class (saponins or alkaloids) on the basis of their UV spectra were also detected; their identity is under investigation.


In vitro anti-Herpes simplex virus activity of crude extract of the roots of Nauclea latifolia Smith (Rubiaceae).

Donalisio M, Nana HM, Ngane RA, Gatsing D, Tchinda AT, Rovito R, Cagno V, Cagliero C, Boyom FF, Rubiolo P, Bicchi C, Lembo D - BMC Complement Altern Med (2013)

HPLC-PDA analysis of Nauclea latifolia crude extract. Peaks’ number are referred to those reported in Table 1.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3852819&req=5

Figure 1: HPLC-PDA analysis of Nauclea latifolia crude extract. Peaks’ number are referred to those reported in Table 1.
Mentions: Figure 1 reports the HPLC-PDA chromatogram of the crude extract from N. latifolia. Table 1 reports the list of the components tentatively identified by HPLC-PDA-ESI-qMS in the crude extract, together with their UV absorption maxima and MS data. Mass spectra, acquired in positive and negative ESI ionization (full scan) in general gave protonated [MH]+ or deprotonated [M–H]- molecular ions respectively and, in positive mode, some molecular ion adducts [M + Na]+ and [M + K]+. The molecular mass of an unknown component was retained only when both [MH]+ and [M–H]- ions were detected. The main components detected in the extracts belong to the class of indole alkaloids characteristic of Nauclea genus. In agreement with the literature data, strictosamide (3, RT = 21,675 min) seems to be the most abundant component in N. latifolia crude extract on the basis of its UV absorption maxima and the molecular ions in positive and negative ESI mode [27]. A less abundant component with UV maxima and molecular ions analogue to strictosamide that can be hypothesized as vincosamide (4, RT = 25,184 min) is also present. The presence of pumiloside (1, RT = 9,16 min) is confirmed by comparison of its UV maxima and molecular ions with those reported in the literature [28]. Compound 5 (RT = 34,224 min) has tentatively been identified as quinovic acid glycoside (a saponin) on the basis of its spectral data and those reported in literature [29]. Other components probably belonging to the same class (saponins or alkaloids) on the basis of their UV spectra were also detected; their identity is under investigation.

Bottom Line: The extract was found to be most active when added post-infection, with IC50 of 3.63 μg/ml.The results of this work partly justify the empirical use of N. latifolia in traditional medicine for the treatment of viral diseases.This extract could be a promising rough material for the development of a new and more effective modern anti-HSV-2 medication also active against acyclovir-resistant HSV-2 strains.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Molecular Virology, Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, University of Turin, PO Box 10043, Torino, Italy. david.lembo@unito.it.

ABSTRACT

Background: Nauclea latifolia Smith, a shrub belonging to the family Rubiaceae is a very popular medicinal plant in Cameroon and neighboring countries where it is used to treat jaundice, yellow fever, rheumatism, abdominal pains, hepatitis, diarrhea, dysentery, hypertension, as well as diabetes. The ethno-medicinal use against yellow fever, jaundice and diarrhea prompted us to investigate on the antiviral activity of the root bark of N. latifolia. In this study, HSV-2 was chosen as a viral model because of its strong impact on HIV transmission and acquisition.

Methods: The crude extract under study was prepared by maceration of air-dried and powdered roots barks of N. latifolia in CH2Cl2/MeOH (50:50) mixture for 48 hours, then it was subjected to filtration and evaporation under vacuum. A phytochemical analysis of the crude extract was performed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with a photodiode array and mass spectrometry (HPLC-PDA-ESI-qMS). The anti-HSV-2 activity was assayed in vitro by plaque reduction and virus yield assays and the major mechanism of action was investigated by virucidal and time of addition assays. Data values were compared using the Extra sum of squares F test of program GraphPad PRISM 4.

Results: The main components detected in the extract belong to the class of indole alkaloids characteristic of Nauclea genus. Strictosamide, vincosamide and pumiloside were tentatively identified together with quinovic acid glycoside. N. latifolia crude extract inhibited both acyclovir sensitive and acyclovir resistant HSV-2 strains, with IC50 values of 5.38 μg/ml for the former and 7.17 μg/ml for the latter. The extract was found to be most active when added post-infection, with IC50 of 3.63 μg/ml.

Conclusion: The results of this work partly justify the empirical use of N. latifolia in traditional medicine for the treatment of viral diseases. This extract could be a promising rough material for the development of a new and more effective modern anti-HSV-2 medication also active against acyclovir-resistant HSV-2 strains.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus