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Compassionate Love as a Predictor of Reduced HIV Disease Progression and Transmission Risk.

Kremer H, Ironson G, Kaplan L, Stuetzle R, Fletcher MA - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2013)

Bottom Line: Deductively, we coded the presence of the five criteria of CL and rated the benefit of CL for the recipient on a 6-point Likert scale.Valuing/empowering and cognitive understanding were the essential criteria for CL to confer long-term benefits.CL had a higher benefit for recipients if given out of free choice.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Miami, FL, USA.

ABSTRACT
Objectives. This study examined if compassionate love (CL) predicts HIV disease progression and transmission risk. Scientific study of CL emerged with Underwood's working model of other-centered CL, defining five criteria: free choice, cognitive understanding, valuing/empowering, openness/receptivity for spirituality, and response of the heart. Method. This 10-year cohort study collected 6-monthly interviews/essays on coping with HIV and trauma of 177 people with HIV in South Florida. Secondary qualitative content analysis on other-centered CL inductively added the component of CL towards self. Deductively, we coded the presence of the five criteria of CL and rated the benefit of CL for the recipient on a 6-point Likert scale. Growth-curve modeling (reduced to 4 years due to cohort effects) investigated if CL predicts CD4 slope (HIV disease progression) and cumulative viral load detection (transmission risk). Results. Valuing/empowering and cognitive understanding were the essential criteria for CL to confer long-term benefits. CL had a higher benefit for recipients if given out of free choice. High scores of CL towards self were reciprocal with receiving (93%) and giving (77%) other-centered CL. Conversely, those rated low on CL towards self were least likely to score high on receiving (38%) and giving (49%) other-centered CL. Growth-curve modeling showed that CL towards self predicted 4-year cumulative undetectable viral load (independent from sociocultural differences, substance use disorder, baseline CD4 and viral load). Those high versus low on CL self were 2.25 times more likely to have undetectable viral load at baseline and 1.49 times more likely to maintain undetectable viral load over time. CL towards self predicted CD4 preservation after controlling for differences in CL giving. Conclusions. CL towards self is potentially the seed of being expressive and receptive of CL. Health care professionals prepared to walk the extra mile for those who neglect and isolate themselves may break a vicious circle since those lacking CL self were least likely to receive CL from others. Future studies should examine whether any enhancement of CL towards self may translate into slower disease progression and reduction of transmission risk.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Presence of the five criteria (free choice, cognitive understanding, valuing/empowering, response of the heart, and openness and receptivity for spirituality) for all three components of compassionate love: giving, receiving, and self (% frequencies of the 15 codings detailed in Table 1).
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fig2: Presence of the five criteria (free choice, cognitive understanding, valuing/empowering, response of the heart, and openness and receptivity for spirituality) for all three components of compassionate love: giving, receiving, and self (% frequencies of the 15 codings detailed in Table 1).

Mentions: Table 1 defines the five criteria of CL with illustrating examples for each component. As depicted in Figure 2, free choice is the most frequent criterion coded, followed by cognitive understanding, valuing/empowering, and response of the heart. Openness/receptivity for spirituality is the least present criterion. Over all components, the frequency order follows a pattern, with every criterion being most present in CL self, followed by CL receiving and CL giving, except for response of the heart, which is most common in CL receiving and least in CL self.


Compassionate Love as a Predictor of Reduced HIV Disease Progression and Transmission Risk.

Kremer H, Ironson G, Kaplan L, Stuetzle R, Fletcher MA - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2013)

Presence of the five criteria (free choice, cognitive understanding, valuing/empowering, response of the heart, and openness and receptivity for spirituality) for all three components of compassionate love: giving, receiving, and self (% frequencies of the 15 codings detailed in Table 1).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3852804&req=5

fig2: Presence of the five criteria (free choice, cognitive understanding, valuing/empowering, response of the heart, and openness and receptivity for spirituality) for all three components of compassionate love: giving, receiving, and self (% frequencies of the 15 codings detailed in Table 1).
Mentions: Table 1 defines the five criteria of CL with illustrating examples for each component. As depicted in Figure 2, free choice is the most frequent criterion coded, followed by cognitive understanding, valuing/empowering, and response of the heart. Openness/receptivity for spirituality is the least present criterion. Over all components, the frequency order follows a pattern, with every criterion being most present in CL self, followed by CL receiving and CL giving, except for response of the heart, which is most common in CL receiving and least in CL self.

Bottom Line: Deductively, we coded the presence of the five criteria of CL and rated the benefit of CL for the recipient on a 6-point Likert scale.Valuing/empowering and cognitive understanding were the essential criteria for CL to confer long-term benefits.CL had a higher benefit for recipients if given out of free choice.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Miami, FL, USA.

ABSTRACT
Objectives. This study examined if compassionate love (CL) predicts HIV disease progression and transmission risk. Scientific study of CL emerged with Underwood's working model of other-centered CL, defining five criteria: free choice, cognitive understanding, valuing/empowering, openness/receptivity for spirituality, and response of the heart. Method. This 10-year cohort study collected 6-monthly interviews/essays on coping with HIV and trauma of 177 people with HIV in South Florida. Secondary qualitative content analysis on other-centered CL inductively added the component of CL towards self. Deductively, we coded the presence of the five criteria of CL and rated the benefit of CL for the recipient on a 6-point Likert scale. Growth-curve modeling (reduced to 4 years due to cohort effects) investigated if CL predicts CD4 slope (HIV disease progression) and cumulative viral load detection (transmission risk). Results. Valuing/empowering and cognitive understanding were the essential criteria for CL to confer long-term benefits. CL had a higher benefit for recipients if given out of free choice. High scores of CL towards self were reciprocal with receiving (93%) and giving (77%) other-centered CL. Conversely, those rated low on CL towards self were least likely to score high on receiving (38%) and giving (49%) other-centered CL. Growth-curve modeling showed that CL towards self predicted 4-year cumulative undetectable viral load (independent from sociocultural differences, substance use disorder, baseline CD4 and viral load). Those high versus low on CL self were 2.25 times more likely to have undetectable viral load at baseline and 1.49 times more likely to maintain undetectable viral load over time. CL towards self predicted CD4 preservation after controlling for differences in CL giving. Conclusions. CL towards self is potentially the seed of being expressive and receptive of CL. Health care professionals prepared to walk the extra mile for those who neglect and isolate themselves may break a vicious circle since those lacking CL self were least likely to receive CL from others. Future studies should examine whether any enhancement of CL towards self may translate into slower disease progression and reduction of transmission risk.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus