Limits...
Leukocyte infiltration in experimental stroke.

Grønberg NV, Johansen FF, Kristiansen U, Hasseldam H - J Neuroinflammation (2013)

Bottom Line: However, the immune system has important functions following infarction, such as removal of dead cells and the subsequent astrocytosis as well as prevention of post-ischemic infection.We found that the number of neutrophil granulocytes peaks between day 1 and 3 after experimental stroke, with short occlusion times (30 and 60 minutes of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)) leading to a later peak in response (P <0.001).Macrophages/microglia were found to peak later than day 3 and stay in the infarcted area for longer time periods, whereas duration of occlusion had no influence on the temporal infiltration (P = 0.475).

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Ole Maaloesvej 5, Copenhagen 2200, Denmark. henrik.hasseldam@bric.ku.dk.

ABSTRACT
Stroke is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. At present, the only available treatment is thrombolysis, which should be initiated no later than 4.5 hours after onset of symptoms. Several studies have shown that an attenuation of the inflammatory response in relation to stroke could widen the therapeutic window. However, the immune system has important functions following infarction, such as removal of dead cells and the subsequent astrocytosis as well as prevention of post-ischemic infection. Hence, detailed knowledge concerning the temporal profile of leukocyte infiltration is necessary in order to develop new and effective treatments.The purpose of this review is to determine the temporal profile of leukocyte (neutrophil granulocytes, macrophages and T-cells) infiltration following experimental stroke. We found that the number of neutrophil granulocytes peaks between day 1 and 3 after experimental stroke, with short occlusion times (30 and 60 minutes of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)) leading to a later peak in response (P <0.001). Macrophages/microglia were found to peak later than day 3 and stay in the infarcted area for longer time periods, whereas duration of occlusion had no influence on the temporal infiltration (P = 0.475). Studies on T-cell infiltration are few; however, a tendency towards infiltration peak at later time points (from day 4 onwards) was seen.This review provides a framework for the instigation of post-stroke anti-inflammatory treatment, which could prove beneficial and widen the therapeutic window compared to current treatment options.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Mean of normalized amount of infiltrating T-cells according to survival time. Infiltration peaks around day 5, followed by a decline up until day 30 (according to Schroeter et al. [41]). Data are also presented in Table 5.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3852747&req=5

Figure 3: Mean of normalized amount of infiltrating T-cells according to survival time. Infiltration peaks around day 5, followed by a decline up until day 30 (according to Schroeter et al. [41]). Data are also presented in Table 5.

Mentions: Only five studies were found that quantified total T-cell influx following stroke by using the pan T-cell marker CD3 (Table 5). One study used CD5 as a marker for T-cells; however, this molecule is expressed by subsets of B-cells as well. Nevertheless, T-cell infiltration after 60 minutes of MCAO peaks around day 3, whereas infiltration peaks at around day 5 to 7 following pMCAO (Figure 3).


Leukocyte infiltration in experimental stroke.

Grønberg NV, Johansen FF, Kristiansen U, Hasseldam H - J Neuroinflammation (2013)

Mean of normalized amount of infiltrating T-cells according to survival time. Infiltration peaks around day 5, followed by a decline up until day 30 (according to Schroeter et al. [41]). Data are also presented in Table 5.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3852747&req=5

Figure 3: Mean of normalized amount of infiltrating T-cells according to survival time. Infiltration peaks around day 5, followed by a decline up until day 30 (according to Schroeter et al. [41]). Data are also presented in Table 5.
Mentions: Only five studies were found that quantified total T-cell influx following stroke by using the pan T-cell marker CD3 (Table 5). One study used CD5 as a marker for T-cells; however, this molecule is expressed by subsets of B-cells as well. Nevertheless, T-cell infiltration after 60 minutes of MCAO peaks around day 3, whereas infiltration peaks at around day 5 to 7 following pMCAO (Figure 3).

Bottom Line: However, the immune system has important functions following infarction, such as removal of dead cells and the subsequent astrocytosis as well as prevention of post-ischemic infection.We found that the number of neutrophil granulocytes peaks between day 1 and 3 after experimental stroke, with short occlusion times (30 and 60 minutes of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)) leading to a later peak in response (P <0.001).Macrophages/microglia were found to peak later than day 3 and stay in the infarcted area for longer time periods, whereas duration of occlusion had no influence on the temporal infiltration (P = 0.475).

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Ole Maaloesvej 5, Copenhagen 2200, Denmark. henrik.hasseldam@bric.ku.dk.

ABSTRACT
Stroke is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. At present, the only available treatment is thrombolysis, which should be initiated no later than 4.5 hours after onset of symptoms. Several studies have shown that an attenuation of the inflammatory response in relation to stroke could widen the therapeutic window. However, the immune system has important functions following infarction, such as removal of dead cells and the subsequent astrocytosis as well as prevention of post-ischemic infection. Hence, detailed knowledge concerning the temporal profile of leukocyte infiltration is necessary in order to develop new and effective treatments.The purpose of this review is to determine the temporal profile of leukocyte (neutrophil granulocytes, macrophages and T-cells) infiltration following experimental stroke. We found that the number of neutrophil granulocytes peaks between day 1 and 3 after experimental stroke, with short occlusion times (30 and 60 minutes of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)) leading to a later peak in response (P <0.001). Macrophages/microglia were found to peak later than day 3 and stay in the infarcted area for longer time periods, whereas duration of occlusion had no influence on the temporal infiltration (P = 0.475). Studies on T-cell infiltration are few; however, a tendency towards infiltration peak at later time points (from day 4 onwards) was seen.This review provides a framework for the instigation of post-stroke anti-inflammatory treatment, which could prove beneficial and widen the therapeutic window compared to current treatment options.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus