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Effect of Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of Khaya senegalensis on Some Biochemical, Haematological, and Histopathological Parameters of Rats.

Onu A, Saidu Y, Ladan MJ, Bilbis LS, Aliero AA, Sahabi SM - J Toxicol (2013)

Bottom Line: The levels of protein, albumin, and bilirubin were significantly changed when compared to their control values, but they were not dose dependent.The hematological indices assayed in this study were not significantly affected at the experimental dose when compared to the control values.The result of this study indicates that the aqueous stem bark extract of K. senegalensis may affect the cellular integrity of vital organs of the body.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, PMB. 2346, Sokoto, Nigeria.

ABSTRACT
The subchronic effect of aqueous stem bark extract of Khaya senegalensis on some biochemical, haematological, and histopathological parameters of rats was investigated. The rats were divided into six groups of five rats per group. Groups I to VI were administered graded doses of 0, 400, 800, 1200, 1600, and 2000 mg/kg bw, respectively. The result of study revealed that administration of the Khaya senegalensis for twenty-eight days at the experimental dose resulted in significant (P < 0.05) increase in urea, electrolytes (Na(+), K(+)), and creatinine levels. The extract also significantly (P < 0.05) increased serum activity of ALT, AST, and ALP. The levels of protein, albumin, and bilirubin were significantly changed when compared to their control values, but they were not dose dependent. The hematological indices assayed in this study were not significantly affected at the experimental dose when compared to the control values. Histological studies of the liver showed cellular degeneration and necrosis and bile duct hyperplasia and fibrosis with lymphocytic infiltration of the hepatocyte, providing supportive evidence for discussing the biochemical findings, indicative of functional derangement. The histological architecture of the kidney and that of the heart were however preserved. The result of this study indicates that the aqueous stem bark extract of K. senegalensis may affect the cellular integrity of vital organs of the body.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Photomicrographs of liver sections, H&E stain 400x. (a) 0 mg/kg bw: normal architecture of the liver: central vein (CV) in the center of the hepatic lobule is filled with blood (B). Hepatocytes, arranged in the form of cords, are rounded in a polyhedral shape and radiate peripherally; they show the nucleus with a clear nuclear membrane and nucleolus (NO); cords are separated by sinusoids (S) with Kupffer cells. (b) 400 mg/kg bw: deranged architecture of the liver, extensive ballooning (BL) of hepatocytes with hyperchromatic nuclei, and nucleoli are not clearly seen; multiple binucleated cells (BN) and sinusoidal arrangement are also deranged, observed centrilobular necrosis (NC). (c) 800 mg/kg bw: distorted architecture of the liver with ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes (H). Observed hyperchromatic nuclei (N) and nucleoli are not clearly seen; multiple binucleated cells (BN) and sinusoidal (S) arrangement also seems to have been deranged. Periportal (PT) inflammation consisting of collection of lymphocytes (L) around the bile duct (BD), portal vein (PV), and hepatic artery (HA). (d) 1200 mg/kg bw: feathery ballooning of hepatocytes with sinusoidal (S) arrangement being deranged; portal triaditis (PT) showing inflammation consisting of a collection of lymphocytes around the bile duct (BD). (e) 1600 mg/kg bw: deranged architecture of liver with hepatocyte vacuolation, ballooning (BL) of hepatocytes with nucleoli not clearly seen, multiple binucleated cells (BN) and sinusoidal arrangement have been deranged; periportal triaditis (PT) showing distorted triads and inflammation consisting of collection of lymphocytes (L) around the hepatic artery (HA), observed hepatic necrosis (NC). (f) 2000 mg/kg: extensive ballooning (BL) of hepatocytes with multiple binucleated dilation with centrilobular necrosis (NC).
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fig2: Photomicrographs of liver sections, H&E stain 400x. (a) 0 mg/kg bw: normal architecture of the liver: central vein (CV) in the center of the hepatic lobule is filled with blood (B). Hepatocytes, arranged in the form of cords, are rounded in a polyhedral shape and radiate peripherally; they show the nucleus with a clear nuclear membrane and nucleolus (NO); cords are separated by sinusoids (S) with Kupffer cells. (b) 400 mg/kg bw: deranged architecture of the liver, extensive ballooning (BL) of hepatocytes with hyperchromatic nuclei, and nucleoli are not clearly seen; multiple binucleated cells (BN) and sinusoidal arrangement are also deranged, observed centrilobular necrosis (NC). (c) 800 mg/kg bw: distorted architecture of the liver with ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes (H). Observed hyperchromatic nuclei (N) and nucleoli are not clearly seen; multiple binucleated cells (BN) and sinusoidal (S) arrangement also seems to have been deranged. Periportal (PT) inflammation consisting of collection of lymphocytes (L) around the bile duct (BD), portal vein (PV), and hepatic artery (HA). (d) 1200 mg/kg bw: feathery ballooning of hepatocytes with sinusoidal (S) arrangement being deranged; portal triaditis (PT) showing inflammation consisting of a collection of lymphocytes around the bile duct (BD). (e) 1600 mg/kg bw: deranged architecture of liver with hepatocyte vacuolation, ballooning (BL) of hepatocytes with nucleoli not clearly seen, multiple binucleated cells (BN) and sinusoidal arrangement have been deranged; periportal triaditis (PT) showing distorted triads and inflammation consisting of collection of lymphocytes (L) around the hepatic artery (HA), observed hepatic necrosis (NC). (f) 2000 mg/kg: extensive ballooning (BL) of hepatocytes with multiple binucleated dilation with centrilobular necrosis (NC).

Mentions: Examination of the liver histological preparations obtained from all the experimental treated groups showed comparable changes as observed in Figures 2(a)to 2(f).


Effect of Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of Khaya senegalensis on Some Biochemical, Haematological, and Histopathological Parameters of Rats.

Onu A, Saidu Y, Ladan MJ, Bilbis LS, Aliero AA, Sahabi SM - J Toxicol (2013)

Photomicrographs of liver sections, H&E stain 400x. (a) 0 mg/kg bw: normal architecture of the liver: central vein (CV) in the center of the hepatic lobule is filled with blood (B). Hepatocytes, arranged in the form of cords, are rounded in a polyhedral shape and radiate peripherally; they show the nucleus with a clear nuclear membrane and nucleolus (NO); cords are separated by sinusoids (S) with Kupffer cells. (b) 400 mg/kg bw: deranged architecture of the liver, extensive ballooning (BL) of hepatocytes with hyperchromatic nuclei, and nucleoli are not clearly seen; multiple binucleated cells (BN) and sinusoidal arrangement are also deranged, observed centrilobular necrosis (NC). (c) 800 mg/kg bw: distorted architecture of the liver with ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes (H). Observed hyperchromatic nuclei (N) and nucleoli are not clearly seen; multiple binucleated cells (BN) and sinusoidal (S) arrangement also seems to have been deranged. Periportal (PT) inflammation consisting of collection of lymphocytes (L) around the bile duct (BD), portal vein (PV), and hepatic artery (HA). (d) 1200 mg/kg bw: feathery ballooning of hepatocytes with sinusoidal (S) arrangement being deranged; portal triaditis (PT) showing inflammation consisting of a collection of lymphocytes around the bile duct (BD). (e) 1600 mg/kg bw: deranged architecture of liver with hepatocyte vacuolation, ballooning (BL) of hepatocytes with nucleoli not clearly seen, multiple binucleated cells (BN) and sinusoidal arrangement have been deranged; periportal triaditis (PT) showing distorted triads and inflammation consisting of collection of lymphocytes (L) around the hepatic artery (HA), observed hepatic necrosis (NC). (f) 2000 mg/kg: extensive ballooning (BL) of hepatocytes with multiple binucleated dilation with centrilobular necrosis (NC).
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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fig2: Photomicrographs of liver sections, H&E stain 400x. (a) 0 mg/kg bw: normal architecture of the liver: central vein (CV) in the center of the hepatic lobule is filled with blood (B). Hepatocytes, arranged in the form of cords, are rounded in a polyhedral shape and radiate peripherally; they show the nucleus with a clear nuclear membrane and nucleolus (NO); cords are separated by sinusoids (S) with Kupffer cells. (b) 400 mg/kg bw: deranged architecture of the liver, extensive ballooning (BL) of hepatocytes with hyperchromatic nuclei, and nucleoli are not clearly seen; multiple binucleated cells (BN) and sinusoidal arrangement are also deranged, observed centrilobular necrosis (NC). (c) 800 mg/kg bw: distorted architecture of the liver with ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes (H). Observed hyperchromatic nuclei (N) and nucleoli are not clearly seen; multiple binucleated cells (BN) and sinusoidal (S) arrangement also seems to have been deranged. Periportal (PT) inflammation consisting of collection of lymphocytes (L) around the bile duct (BD), portal vein (PV), and hepatic artery (HA). (d) 1200 mg/kg bw: feathery ballooning of hepatocytes with sinusoidal (S) arrangement being deranged; portal triaditis (PT) showing inflammation consisting of a collection of lymphocytes around the bile duct (BD). (e) 1600 mg/kg bw: deranged architecture of liver with hepatocyte vacuolation, ballooning (BL) of hepatocytes with nucleoli not clearly seen, multiple binucleated cells (BN) and sinusoidal arrangement have been deranged; periportal triaditis (PT) showing distorted triads and inflammation consisting of collection of lymphocytes (L) around the hepatic artery (HA), observed hepatic necrosis (NC). (f) 2000 mg/kg: extensive ballooning (BL) of hepatocytes with multiple binucleated dilation with centrilobular necrosis (NC).
Mentions: Examination of the liver histological preparations obtained from all the experimental treated groups showed comparable changes as observed in Figures 2(a)to 2(f).

Bottom Line: The levels of protein, albumin, and bilirubin were significantly changed when compared to their control values, but they were not dose dependent.The hematological indices assayed in this study were not significantly affected at the experimental dose when compared to the control values.The result of this study indicates that the aqueous stem bark extract of K. senegalensis may affect the cellular integrity of vital organs of the body.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, PMB. 2346, Sokoto, Nigeria.

ABSTRACT
The subchronic effect of aqueous stem bark extract of Khaya senegalensis on some biochemical, haematological, and histopathological parameters of rats was investigated. The rats were divided into six groups of five rats per group. Groups I to VI were administered graded doses of 0, 400, 800, 1200, 1600, and 2000 mg/kg bw, respectively. The result of study revealed that administration of the Khaya senegalensis for twenty-eight days at the experimental dose resulted in significant (P < 0.05) increase in urea, electrolytes (Na(+), K(+)), and creatinine levels. The extract also significantly (P < 0.05) increased serum activity of ALT, AST, and ALP. The levels of protein, albumin, and bilirubin were significantly changed when compared to their control values, but they were not dose dependent. The hematological indices assayed in this study were not significantly affected at the experimental dose when compared to the control values. Histological studies of the liver showed cellular degeneration and necrosis and bile duct hyperplasia and fibrosis with lymphocytic infiltration of the hepatocyte, providing supportive evidence for discussing the biochemical findings, indicative of functional derangement. The histological architecture of the kidney and that of the heart were however preserved. The result of this study indicates that the aqueous stem bark extract of K. senegalensis may affect the cellular integrity of vital organs of the body.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus