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Soyasaponin I improved neuroprotection and regeneration in memory deficient model rats.

Hong SW, Heo H, Yang JH, Han M, Kim DH, Kwon YK - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: Oral administration of soya-I exhibited significant memory-enhancing effects in the passive avoidance, Y-maze, and Morris water maze tests.Addition of soya-Ι in the cultured NPCs significantly elevated the markers for cell proliferation (Ki-67) and neuronal differentiation (NeuN, TUJ1, and MAP2).Soya-Ι may improve hippocampal learning and memory impairment by promoting proliferation and differentiation of NPCs in the hippocampus through facilitation of neuronal regeneration and minimization of neuro-inflammation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Life and Nanopharmaceutical Sciences, Kyung Hee University, Hoegi-dong, Dongdaemoon-gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

ABSTRACT
Soy (Glycine Max Merr, family Leguminosae) has been reported to possess anti-cancer, anti-lipidemic, estrogen-like, and memory-enhancing effects. We investigated the memory-enhancing effects and the underlying mechanisms of soyasaponin I (soya-I), a major constituent of soy. Impaired learning and memory were induced by injecting ibotenic acid into the entorhinal cortex of adult rat brains. The effects of soya-I were evaluated by measuring behavioral tasks and neuronal regeneration of memory-deficient rats. Oral administration of soya-I exhibited significant memory-enhancing effects in the passive avoidance, Y-maze, and Morris water maze tests. Soya-Ι also increased BrdU incorporation into the dentate gyrus and the number of cell types (GAD67, ChAT, and VGluT1) in the hippocampal region of memory-deficient rats, whereas the number of reactive microglia (OX42) decreased. The mechanism underlying memory improvement was assessed by detecting the differentiation and proliferation of neural precursor cells (NPCs) prepared from the embryonic hippocampus (E16) of timed-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats using immunocytochemical staining and immunoblotting analysis. Addition of soya-Ι in the cultured NPCs significantly elevated the markers for cell proliferation (Ki-67) and neuronal differentiation (NeuN, TUJ1, and MAP2). Finally, soya-I increased neurite lengthening and the number of neurites during the differentiation of NPCs. Soya-Ι may improve hippocampal learning and memory impairment by promoting proliferation and differentiation of NPCs in the hippocampus through facilitation of neuronal regeneration and minimization of neuro-inflammation.

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Effects of soya-Ι on expression of differentiation markers of neuronal cell types in cultured hippocampal cells.A. Effects of soya-Ι on the expression of ChAT protein. B. Effects of soya-Ι on the expression of VGluT1 protein. C. Effects of soya-Ι on expression of GAD 65/67 protein. All assay and measurements were carried out as described in Materials and Methods. Hippocampal cultures from the rat embryos were performed three times. Samples per groups were analyzed twice. Data represent means ± SEM (*p < 0.05, compared with the vehicle group by Newman-Keuls Multiple Comparison Test).
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pone-0081556-g007: Effects of soya-Ι on expression of differentiation markers of neuronal cell types in cultured hippocampal cells.A. Effects of soya-Ι on the expression of ChAT protein. B. Effects of soya-Ι on the expression of VGluT1 protein. C. Effects of soya-Ι on expression of GAD 65/67 protein. All assay and measurements were carried out as described in Materials and Methods. Hippocampal cultures from the rat embryos were performed three times. Samples per groups were analyzed twice. Data represent means ± SEM (*p < 0.05, compared with the vehicle group by Newman-Keuls Multiple Comparison Test).

Mentions: When the cell extracts were analyzed by immunobloting after treatment with soya-Ι at 0.5, 1, and 2 μM for 6 days, the protein expression levels of ChAT (Figure 7A) were increased 1.9-fold, respectively, compared with those of the vehicle group (Vehicle n = 4, Soya-I 0.5 μM n = 4, Soya-I 1 μM n = 4; Soya-I 2 μM n = 4; F3,12 = 4.584, p = 0.0232 by One-way ANOVA). However, expression of VGluT1 or GAD65/67 proteins increased relatively little after treatment with soya-Ι for 6 days (Figure 7B, C). Thus, the results shown in Figures 6 and 7 demonstrate that soya-I increases the proliferation and differentiation of hippocampal NPCs in primary culture from embryos, supporting the idea that soya-I improves learning and memory in memory-deficient model rats most likely by promoting neurogenesis and maturation of hippocampal NPCs.


Soyasaponin I improved neuroprotection and regeneration in memory deficient model rats.

Hong SW, Heo H, Yang JH, Han M, Kim DH, Kwon YK - PLoS ONE (2013)

Effects of soya-Ι on expression of differentiation markers of neuronal cell types in cultured hippocampal cells.A. Effects of soya-Ι on the expression of ChAT protein. B. Effects of soya-Ι on the expression of VGluT1 protein. C. Effects of soya-Ι on expression of GAD 65/67 protein. All assay and measurements were carried out as described in Materials and Methods. Hippocampal cultures from the rat embryos were performed three times. Samples per groups were analyzed twice. Data represent means ± SEM (*p < 0.05, compared with the vehicle group by Newman-Keuls Multiple Comparison Test).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3852400&req=5

pone-0081556-g007: Effects of soya-Ι on expression of differentiation markers of neuronal cell types in cultured hippocampal cells.A. Effects of soya-Ι on the expression of ChAT protein. B. Effects of soya-Ι on the expression of VGluT1 protein. C. Effects of soya-Ι on expression of GAD 65/67 protein. All assay and measurements were carried out as described in Materials and Methods. Hippocampal cultures from the rat embryos were performed three times. Samples per groups were analyzed twice. Data represent means ± SEM (*p < 0.05, compared with the vehicle group by Newman-Keuls Multiple Comparison Test).
Mentions: When the cell extracts were analyzed by immunobloting after treatment with soya-Ι at 0.5, 1, and 2 μM for 6 days, the protein expression levels of ChAT (Figure 7A) were increased 1.9-fold, respectively, compared with those of the vehicle group (Vehicle n = 4, Soya-I 0.5 μM n = 4, Soya-I 1 μM n = 4; Soya-I 2 μM n = 4; F3,12 = 4.584, p = 0.0232 by One-way ANOVA). However, expression of VGluT1 or GAD65/67 proteins increased relatively little after treatment with soya-Ι for 6 days (Figure 7B, C). Thus, the results shown in Figures 6 and 7 demonstrate that soya-I increases the proliferation and differentiation of hippocampal NPCs in primary culture from embryos, supporting the idea that soya-I improves learning and memory in memory-deficient model rats most likely by promoting neurogenesis and maturation of hippocampal NPCs.

Bottom Line: Oral administration of soya-I exhibited significant memory-enhancing effects in the passive avoidance, Y-maze, and Morris water maze tests.Addition of soya-Ι in the cultured NPCs significantly elevated the markers for cell proliferation (Ki-67) and neuronal differentiation (NeuN, TUJ1, and MAP2).Soya-Ι may improve hippocampal learning and memory impairment by promoting proliferation and differentiation of NPCs in the hippocampus through facilitation of neuronal regeneration and minimization of neuro-inflammation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Life and Nanopharmaceutical Sciences, Kyung Hee University, Hoegi-dong, Dongdaemoon-gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

ABSTRACT
Soy (Glycine Max Merr, family Leguminosae) has been reported to possess anti-cancer, anti-lipidemic, estrogen-like, and memory-enhancing effects. We investigated the memory-enhancing effects and the underlying mechanisms of soyasaponin I (soya-I), a major constituent of soy. Impaired learning and memory were induced by injecting ibotenic acid into the entorhinal cortex of adult rat brains. The effects of soya-I were evaluated by measuring behavioral tasks and neuronal regeneration of memory-deficient rats. Oral administration of soya-I exhibited significant memory-enhancing effects in the passive avoidance, Y-maze, and Morris water maze tests. Soya-Ι also increased BrdU incorporation into the dentate gyrus and the number of cell types (GAD67, ChAT, and VGluT1) in the hippocampal region of memory-deficient rats, whereas the number of reactive microglia (OX42) decreased. The mechanism underlying memory improvement was assessed by detecting the differentiation and proliferation of neural precursor cells (NPCs) prepared from the embryonic hippocampus (E16) of timed-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats using immunocytochemical staining and immunoblotting analysis. Addition of soya-Ι in the cultured NPCs significantly elevated the markers for cell proliferation (Ki-67) and neuronal differentiation (NeuN, TUJ1, and MAP2). Finally, soya-I increased neurite lengthening and the number of neurites during the differentiation of NPCs. Soya-Ι may improve hippocampal learning and memory impairment by promoting proliferation and differentiation of NPCs in the hippocampus through facilitation of neuronal regeneration and minimization of neuro-inflammation.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus