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Effect of jeju water on blood glucose levels in diabetic patients: a randomized controlled trial.

Koh G, Lee DH, Lee SA, Kang EK, Hwang O, Han HJ, Kim SY, Yang EJ, Kim MK, Chin HJ - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2013)

Bottom Line: In total, 196 patients were randomized and analyzed in the intention-to-treat (ITT) population (66 consuming S1, 63 consuming S2, and 67 consuming SS); 146 patients were considered in the PP population.There were no significant differences in the primary outcomes of the groups consuming S1, S2, or SS.Although we failed to achieve the primary outcome, it is possible that the Jeju waters improve glycemic control compared with the Seoul tap water in diabetic patients.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Internal Medicine, Jeju National University School of Medicine, 102 Jejudaehakno, Jeju City, Jeju 690-756, Republic of Korea.

ABSTRACT
Jeju water is the groundwater of Jeju Island, a volcanic island located in Republic of Korea. We investigated whether Jeju water improved glycemic control in patients with diabetes. This was a 12-week single-center, double-blind, randomized, and controlled trial. The subjects daily drank a liter of one of three kinds of water: two Jeju waters (S1 and S2) and Seoul tap water (SS). The primary outcome was the proportion of patients in the per-protocol (PP) population achieving glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) < 7.0% at week 12. In total, 196 patients were randomized and analyzed in the intention-to-treat (ITT) population (66 consuming S1, 63 consuming S2, and 67 consuming SS); 146 patients were considered in the PP population. There were no significant differences in the primary outcomes of the groups consuming S1, S2, or SS. However, the percentage of patients achieving HbA1c < 8% was significantly higher in the S2 group than in the SS group. In the ITT population, the 12-week HbA1c and fructosamine levels were lower in the S1 group than in the SS group and the 4-, 8-, and 12-week fructosamine levels were lower in the S2 group than in the SS group. Although we failed to achieve the primary outcome, it is possible that the Jeju waters improve glycemic control compared with the Seoul tap water in diabetic patients.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Seven-point self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG) profiles at baseline and week 12 in the SS (a), S1 (b), and S2 (c) groups (ITT population). Each point represents a mean ± SE.
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fig4: Seven-point self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG) profiles at baseline and week 12 in the SS (a), S1 (b), and S2 (c) groups (ITT population). Each point represents a mean ± SE.

Mentions: The baseline FPG, fructosamine, and HbA1c levels were similar in the SS, S1, and S2 groups (Table 2). The follow-up FPG levels were not significantly different between the three groups at weeks 4, 8, and 12. However, the fructosamine levels were significantly lower in the S1 group than in the SS group at week 12 and were lower in the S2 group than in the SS group at weeks 4, 8, and 12. The fructosamine levels in the SS group tended to increase during the study, but they showed no change or a slight tendency to decline in the S1 and S2 groups. The HbA1c levels did not differ significantly between the three groups at week 4 or 8, whereas at week 12, the HbA1c levels differed significantly between the S1 and SS groups and differed between the S2 and SS groups with borderline statistical significance (Figure 3 and Table 3). The seven-point SMBG profiles did not differ significantly between baseline and week 12 in all three groups. However, there was a weak decreasing trend in the daytime and evening glucose concentrations in the S2 and S1 groups after the 12-week study period (Figure 4). The plasma C-peptide levels were similar among the three groups at the visit at week 12. HOMA-β C-peptide was significantly higher in the S1 group than in the SS group at the end of the study, but HOMA-IR C-peptide did not differ between the three groups (Table 4). Body weight did not differ between the three groups at week 12, but waist circumference differed between the S2 and SS groups with borderline significance (Table 5).


Effect of jeju water on blood glucose levels in diabetic patients: a randomized controlled trial.

Koh G, Lee DH, Lee SA, Kang EK, Hwang O, Han HJ, Kim SY, Yang EJ, Kim MK, Chin HJ - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2013)

Seven-point self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG) profiles at baseline and week 12 in the SS (a), S1 (b), and S2 (c) groups (ITT population). Each point represents a mean ± SE.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3852319&req=5

fig4: Seven-point self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG) profiles at baseline and week 12 in the SS (a), S1 (b), and S2 (c) groups (ITT population). Each point represents a mean ± SE.
Mentions: The baseline FPG, fructosamine, and HbA1c levels were similar in the SS, S1, and S2 groups (Table 2). The follow-up FPG levels were not significantly different between the three groups at weeks 4, 8, and 12. However, the fructosamine levels were significantly lower in the S1 group than in the SS group at week 12 and were lower in the S2 group than in the SS group at weeks 4, 8, and 12. The fructosamine levels in the SS group tended to increase during the study, but they showed no change or a slight tendency to decline in the S1 and S2 groups. The HbA1c levels did not differ significantly between the three groups at week 4 or 8, whereas at week 12, the HbA1c levels differed significantly between the S1 and SS groups and differed between the S2 and SS groups with borderline statistical significance (Figure 3 and Table 3). The seven-point SMBG profiles did not differ significantly between baseline and week 12 in all three groups. However, there was a weak decreasing trend in the daytime and evening glucose concentrations in the S2 and S1 groups after the 12-week study period (Figure 4). The plasma C-peptide levels were similar among the three groups at the visit at week 12. HOMA-β C-peptide was significantly higher in the S1 group than in the SS group at the end of the study, but HOMA-IR C-peptide did not differ between the three groups (Table 4). Body weight did not differ between the three groups at week 12, but waist circumference differed between the S2 and SS groups with borderline significance (Table 5).

Bottom Line: In total, 196 patients were randomized and analyzed in the intention-to-treat (ITT) population (66 consuming S1, 63 consuming S2, and 67 consuming SS); 146 patients were considered in the PP population.There were no significant differences in the primary outcomes of the groups consuming S1, S2, or SS.Although we failed to achieve the primary outcome, it is possible that the Jeju waters improve glycemic control compared with the Seoul tap water in diabetic patients.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Internal Medicine, Jeju National University School of Medicine, 102 Jejudaehakno, Jeju City, Jeju 690-756, Republic of Korea.

ABSTRACT
Jeju water is the groundwater of Jeju Island, a volcanic island located in Republic of Korea. We investigated whether Jeju water improved glycemic control in patients with diabetes. This was a 12-week single-center, double-blind, randomized, and controlled trial. The subjects daily drank a liter of one of three kinds of water: two Jeju waters (S1 and S2) and Seoul tap water (SS). The primary outcome was the proportion of patients in the per-protocol (PP) population achieving glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) < 7.0% at week 12. In total, 196 patients were randomized and analyzed in the intention-to-treat (ITT) population (66 consuming S1, 63 consuming S2, and 67 consuming SS); 146 patients were considered in the PP population. There were no significant differences in the primary outcomes of the groups consuming S1, S2, or SS. However, the percentage of patients achieving HbA1c < 8% was significantly higher in the S2 group than in the SS group. In the ITT population, the 12-week HbA1c and fructosamine levels were lower in the S1 group than in the SS group and the 4-, 8-, and 12-week fructosamine levels were lower in the S2 group than in the SS group. Although we failed to achieve the primary outcome, it is possible that the Jeju waters improve glycemic control compared with the Seoul tap water in diabetic patients.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus