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Grappling the high altitude for safe edible bamboo shoots with rich nutritional attributes and escaping cyanogenic toxicity.

Waikhom SD, Louis B, Sharma CK, Kumari P, Somkuwar BG, Singh MW, Talukdar NC - Biomed Res Int (2013)

Bottom Line: Adequate characterization of edible bamboo species with low level of TCC and high nutritious attributes is required for consumer's safety as well as for the conservation of the gene pool.Importantly, Dendrocalamus species are shown to be rich in TCC irrespective of the growing altitude while Bambusa species are found to have moderate level of TCC.The findings clearly demonstrated that Chimonobambusa callosa growing at high altitude represents safe edible bamboo species with nutritious attributes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Bioresources and Sustainable Development (IBSD), Takyelpat, Imphal, Manipur 795001, India.

ABSTRACT
Consumption of bamboo species with high level of total cyanogenic content (TCC) in Asia by many ethnic groups is significantly associated with food poisoning and occasionally Konzo (a neurological disorder). Adequate characterization of edible bamboo species with low level of TCC and high nutritious attributes is required for consumer's safety as well as for the conservation of the gene pool. Here, we employed morphological descriptors, atomic absorption spectrophotometer, RAPD, and trnL-F intergenic spacer to characterize 15 indigenous edible bamboo species of north-east India. The study indicates that morphologically and genetically evolved edible bamboo species having large and robust bamboo-shoot texture and growing at low altitude contain high level of TCC, low antioxidant properties, and low levels of beneficial macronutrients and micronutrients. Importantly, Dendrocalamus species are shown to be rich in TCC irrespective of the growing altitude while Bambusa species are found to have moderate level of TCC. The findings clearly demonstrated that Chimonobambusa callosa growing at high altitude represents safe edible bamboo species with nutritious attributes.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

PCA polygonal biplot analysis showing the interrelatedness of nutritional attributes of 12 edible bamboos species. The numbers represent bamboo species and the vectors are biochemical traits: KC013285/B. cacharensis (1), JX564900/B. manipureana (2), JX564901/B. nutans (3), JX507132/B. tulda (4), JX507131/B. oliveriana (5), JX564902/D. giganteus (6), JX564903/D. hamiltonii (7), JX564906/Bambusa sp. (8), JX564904/D. hookeri (9), JX564905/D. manipureanus (10), JX564907/Bambusa sp. (11), and KC013288/B. tuldoides (12). AA: antioxidant activity, Ca: calcium, Ce: cellulose, Cu: copper, Fe: iron, K: potassium, Mg: magnesium, N: nitrogen, Na: sodium, P: phosphorous, TCC: total cyanide content, and Zn: zinc.
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fig6: PCA polygonal biplot analysis showing the interrelatedness of nutritional attributes of 12 edible bamboos species. The numbers represent bamboo species and the vectors are biochemical traits: KC013285/B. cacharensis (1), JX564900/B. manipureana (2), JX564901/B. nutans (3), JX507132/B. tulda (4), JX507131/B. oliveriana (5), JX564902/D. giganteus (6), JX564903/D. hamiltonii (7), JX564906/Bambusa sp. (8), JX564904/D. hookeri (9), JX564905/D. manipureanus (10), JX564907/Bambusa sp. (11), and KC013288/B. tuldoides (12). AA: antioxidant activity, Ca: calcium, Ce: cellulose, Cu: copper, Fe: iron, K: potassium, Mg: magnesium, N: nitrogen, Na: sodium, P: phosphorous, TCC: total cyanide content, and Zn: zinc.

Mentions: Using graphical approaches to study biological problems can provide an intuitive picture or useful insights for analysing complicated relationship in large data set [28], as demonstrated by many previous studies on a series of important biological topics, such as enzyme-catalysed reactions [29–31], inhibition of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase [32], drug metabolism systems [33], and using Wenxiang diagram [34] to study protein-protein interactions [35, 36]. The interrelatedness of all the biochemical traits studied and their relationship with the bamboo species based on PCA generated four principal components: PC-1, PC-2, PC-3, and PC-4. The four principal components with eigenvalues (ε > 1.00) accounted for 72.25% of the total variation in nutritional attributes (Table S3). A positive correlation coefficient (r > 0.30) was observed in PC-1 among phosphorous, iron, sodium, copper, magnesium, zinc, nitrogen, and antioxidant activity, accountable for 32.19% (P < 0.05) variation in nutritional content. Interestingly, we observed that PC-2 and PC-3 were highly associated with nitrogen, cellulose, magnesium, copper, and potassium (16.91% variation, P < 0.05) and total cyanide content, calcium, cellulose, zinc, and copper (14.50% variation, P < 0.05), respectively. In PC-2 and PC-3, no significant correlation was observed among nutritional attributes. PC-4 was associated with cellulose, antioxidant activity and accounted for 11.65% (P < 0.05) net variation in nutritional attributes. The interrelatedness between the nutritional attributes is represented in a polygonal biplot (Figure 6) as previously described [37].


Grappling the high altitude for safe edible bamboo shoots with rich nutritional attributes and escaping cyanogenic toxicity.

Waikhom SD, Louis B, Sharma CK, Kumari P, Somkuwar BG, Singh MW, Talukdar NC - Biomed Res Int (2013)

PCA polygonal biplot analysis showing the interrelatedness of nutritional attributes of 12 edible bamboos species. The numbers represent bamboo species and the vectors are biochemical traits: KC013285/B. cacharensis (1), JX564900/B. manipureana (2), JX564901/B. nutans (3), JX507132/B. tulda (4), JX507131/B. oliveriana (5), JX564902/D. giganteus (6), JX564903/D. hamiltonii (7), JX564906/Bambusa sp. (8), JX564904/D. hookeri (9), JX564905/D. manipureanus (10), JX564907/Bambusa sp. (11), and KC013288/B. tuldoides (12). AA: antioxidant activity, Ca: calcium, Ce: cellulose, Cu: copper, Fe: iron, K: potassium, Mg: magnesium, N: nitrogen, Na: sodium, P: phosphorous, TCC: total cyanide content, and Zn: zinc.
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fig6: PCA polygonal biplot analysis showing the interrelatedness of nutritional attributes of 12 edible bamboos species. The numbers represent bamboo species and the vectors are biochemical traits: KC013285/B. cacharensis (1), JX564900/B. manipureana (2), JX564901/B. nutans (3), JX507132/B. tulda (4), JX507131/B. oliveriana (5), JX564902/D. giganteus (6), JX564903/D. hamiltonii (7), JX564906/Bambusa sp. (8), JX564904/D. hookeri (9), JX564905/D. manipureanus (10), JX564907/Bambusa sp. (11), and KC013288/B. tuldoides (12). AA: antioxidant activity, Ca: calcium, Ce: cellulose, Cu: copper, Fe: iron, K: potassium, Mg: magnesium, N: nitrogen, Na: sodium, P: phosphorous, TCC: total cyanide content, and Zn: zinc.
Mentions: Using graphical approaches to study biological problems can provide an intuitive picture or useful insights for analysing complicated relationship in large data set [28], as demonstrated by many previous studies on a series of important biological topics, such as enzyme-catalysed reactions [29–31], inhibition of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase [32], drug metabolism systems [33], and using Wenxiang diagram [34] to study protein-protein interactions [35, 36]. The interrelatedness of all the biochemical traits studied and their relationship with the bamboo species based on PCA generated four principal components: PC-1, PC-2, PC-3, and PC-4. The four principal components with eigenvalues (ε > 1.00) accounted for 72.25% of the total variation in nutritional attributes (Table S3). A positive correlation coefficient (r > 0.30) was observed in PC-1 among phosphorous, iron, sodium, copper, magnesium, zinc, nitrogen, and antioxidant activity, accountable for 32.19% (P < 0.05) variation in nutritional content. Interestingly, we observed that PC-2 and PC-3 were highly associated with nitrogen, cellulose, magnesium, copper, and potassium (16.91% variation, P < 0.05) and total cyanide content, calcium, cellulose, zinc, and copper (14.50% variation, P < 0.05), respectively. In PC-2 and PC-3, no significant correlation was observed among nutritional attributes. PC-4 was associated with cellulose, antioxidant activity and accounted for 11.65% (P < 0.05) net variation in nutritional attributes. The interrelatedness between the nutritional attributes is represented in a polygonal biplot (Figure 6) as previously described [37].

Bottom Line: Adequate characterization of edible bamboo species with low level of TCC and high nutritious attributes is required for consumer's safety as well as for the conservation of the gene pool.Importantly, Dendrocalamus species are shown to be rich in TCC irrespective of the growing altitude while Bambusa species are found to have moderate level of TCC.The findings clearly demonstrated that Chimonobambusa callosa growing at high altitude represents safe edible bamboo species with nutritious attributes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Bioresources and Sustainable Development (IBSD), Takyelpat, Imphal, Manipur 795001, India.

ABSTRACT
Consumption of bamboo species with high level of total cyanogenic content (TCC) in Asia by many ethnic groups is significantly associated with food poisoning and occasionally Konzo (a neurological disorder). Adequate characterization of edible bamboo species with low level of TCC and high nutritious attributes is required for consumer's safety as well as for the conservation of the gene pool. Here, we employed morphological descriptors, atomic absorption spectrophotometer, RAPD, and trnL-F intergenic spacer to characterize 15 indigenous edible bamboo species of north-east India. The study indicates that morphologically and genetically evolved edible bamboo species having large and robust bamboo-shoot texture and growing at low altitude contain high level of TCC, low antioxidant properties, and low levels of beneficial macronutrients and micronutrients. Importantly, Dendrocalamus species are shown to be rich in TCC irrespective of the growing altitude while Bambusa species are found to have moderate level of TCC. The findings clearly demonstrated that Chimonobambusa callosa growing at high altitude represents safe edible bamboo species with nutritious attributes.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus