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Grappling the high altitude for safe edible bamboo shoots with rich nutritional attributes and escaping cyanogenic toxicity.

Waikhom SD, Louis B, Sharma CK, Kumari P, Somkuwar BG, Singh MW, Talukdar NC - Biomed Res Int (2013)

Bottom Line: Adequate characterization of edible bamboo species with low level of TCC and high nutritious attributes is required for consumer's safety as well as for the conservation of the gene pool.Importantly, Dendrocalamus species are shown to be rich in TCC irrespective of the growing altitude while Bambusa species are found to have moderate level of TCC.The findings clearly demonstrated that Chimonobambusa callosa growing at high altitude represents safe edible bamboo species with nutritious attributes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Bioresources and Sustainable Development (IBSD), Takyelpat, Imphal, Manipur 795001, India.

ABSTRACT
Consumption of bamboo species with high level of total cyanogenic content (TCC) in Asia by many ethnic groups is significantly associated with food poisoning and occasionally Konzo (a neurological disorder). Adequate characterization of edible bamboo species with low level of TCC and high nutritious attributes is required for consumer's safety as well as for the conservation of the gene pool. Here, we employed morphological descriptors, atomic absorption spectrophotometer, RAPD, and trnL-F intergenic spacer to characterize 15 indigenous edible bamboo species of north-east India. The study indicates that morphologically and genetically evolved edible bamboo species having large and robust bamboo-shoot texture and growing at low altitude contain high level of TCC, low antioxidant properties, and low levels of beneficial macronutrients and micronutrients. Importantly, Dendrocalamus species are shown to be rich in TCC irrespective of the growing altitude while Bambusa species are found to have moderate level of TCC. The findings clearly demonstrated that Chimonobambusa callosa growing at high altitude represents safe edible bamboo species with nutritious attributes.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

A maximum likelihood tree based on Hasegawa et al. [20] nucleotide substitution model. The tree is drawn to scale, with branch lengths measured in the number of nucleotide substitutions per site. Evolutionary analyses were conducted in MEGA5 [21].
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fig4: A maximum likelihood tree based on Hasegawa et al. [20] nucleotide substitution model. The tree is drawn to scale, with branch lengths measured in the number of nucleotide substitutions per site. Evolutionary analyses were conducted in MEGA5 [21].

Mentions: Based on DNA sequences, the estimated model parameters were base frequencies (A = 25%, T/U = 25%, C = 25%, and G = 25%) and substitution model [T/U↔A] = 7.10, [C↔A] = 7.10, [G↔A] = 10.80, [C↔T/U] = 10.80, [G↔T/U] = 7.10, and [G↔C] = 7.10. The estimated transition-transversion bias (R) ratio was at 0.76. The overall mean Tajima-Nei [27] evolutionary distance among the species was 0.51. In the sequence set, the entropy of the alignment (Figure S2) showed 164 patterns (out of a total of 491 sites) and 276 sites were without polymorphism (56.21%). A maximum likelihood tree with the highest log likelihood (−445.63) supported by 1000 bootstrap test of replicates showing two main clades (I and II) was generated (Figure 4). It was observed that Dendrocalamus spp. formed a close complex relationship with Bambusa spp. The tree without branch swapping evidence C. callosa has evolved differently from the rest of the edible bamboo species, thus, forming an out group.


Grappling the high altitude for safe edible bamboo shoots with rich nutritional attributes and escaping cyanogenic toxicity.

Waikhom SD, Louis B, Sharma CK, Kumari P, Somkuwar BG, Singh MW, Talukdar NC - Biomed Res Int (2013)

A maximum likelihood tree based on Hasegawa et al. [20] nucleotide substitution model. The tree is drawn to scale, with branch lengths measured in the number of nucleotide substitutions per site. Evolutionary analyses were conducted in MEGA5 [21].
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3852316&req=5

fig4: A maximum likelihood tree based on Hasegawa et al. [20] nucleotide substitution model. The tree is drawn to scale, with branch lengths measured in the number of nucleotide substitutions per site. Evolutionary analyses were conducted in MEGA5 [21].
Mentions: Based on DNA sequences, the estimated model parameters were base frequencies (A = 25%, T/U = 25%, C = 25%, and G = 25%) and substitution model [T/U↔A] = 7.10, [C↔A] = 7.10, [G↔A] = 10.80, [C↔T/U] = 10.80, [G↔T/U] = 7.10, and [G↔C] = 7.10. The estimated transition-transversion bias (R) ratio was at 0.76. The overall mean Tajima-Nei [27] evolutionary distance among the species was 0.51. In the sequence set, the entropy of the alignment (Figure S2) showed 164 patterns (out of a total of 491 sites) and 276 sites were without polymorphism (56.21%). A maximum likelihood tree with the highest log likelihood (−445.63) supported by 1000 bootstrap test of replicates showing two main clades (I and II) was generated (Figure 4). It was observed that Dendrocalamus spp. formed a close complex relationship with Bambusa spp. The tree without branch swapping evidence C. callosa has evolved differently from the rest of the edible bamboo species, thus, forming an out group.

Bottom Line: Adequate characterization of edible bamboo species with low level of TCC and high nutritious attributes is required for consumer's safety as well as for the conservation of the gene pool.Importantly, Dendrocalamus species are shown to be rich in TCC irrespective of the growing altitude while Bambusa species are found to have moderate level of TCC.The findings clearly demonstrated that Chimonobambusa callosa growing at high altitude represents safe edible bamboo species with nutritious attributes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Bioresources and Sustainable Development (IBSD), Takyelpat, Imphal, Manipur 795001, India.

ABSTRACT
Consumption of bamboo species with high level of total cyanogenic content (TCC) in Asia by many ethnic groups is significantly associated with food poisoning and occasionally Konzo (a neurological disorder). Adequate characterization of edible bamboo species with low level of TCC and high nutritious attributes is required for consumer's safety as well as for the conservation of the gene pool. Here, we employed morphological descriptors, atomic absorption spectrophotometer, RAPD, and trnL-F intergenic spacer to characterize 15 indigenous edible bamboo species of north-east India. The study indicates that morphologically and genetically evolved edible bamboo species having large and robust bamboo-shoot texture and growing at low altitude contain high level of TCC, low antioxidant properties, and low levels of beneficial macronutrients and micronutrients. Importantly, Dendrocalamus species are shown to be rich in TCC irrespective of the growing altitude while Bambusa species are found to have moderate level of TCC. The findings clearly demonstrated that Chimonobambusa callosa growing at high altitude represents safe edible bamboo species with nutritious attributes.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus