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Carbohydrate utilization and metabolism is highly differentiated in Agaricus bisporus.

Patyshakuliyeva A, Jurak E, Kohler A, Baker A, Battaglia E, de Bruijn W, Burton KS, Challen MP, Coutinho PM, Eastwood DC, Gruben BS, Mäkelä MR, Martin F, Nadal M, van den Brink J, Wiebenga A, Zhou M, Henrissat B, Kabel M, Gruppen H, de Vries RP - BMC Genomics (2013)

Bottom Line: Clear correlations were found between expression of the genes and composition of carbohydrates.Genes encoding plant cell wall polysaccharide degrading enzymes were mainly expressed in compost-grown mycelium, and largely absent in fruiting bodies.In contrast, genes encoding fungal cell wall polysaccharide modifying enzymes were expressed in both fruiting bodies and vegetative mycelium, but different gene sets were expressed in these samples.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre, Uppsalalaan 8, 3584 CT Utrecht, The Netherlands. r.devries@cbs.knaw.nl.

ABSTRACT

Background: Agaricus bisporus is commercially grown on compost, in which the available carbon sources consist mainly of plant-derived polysaccharides that are built out of various different constituent monosaccharides. The major constituent monosaccharides of these polysaccharides are glucose, xylose, and arabinose, while smaller amounts of galactose, glucuronic acid, rhamnose and mannose are also present.

Results: In this study, genes encoding putative enzymes from carbon metabolism were identified and their expression was studied in different growth stages of A. bisporus. We correlated the expression of genes encoding plant and fungal polysaccharide modifying enzymes identified in the A. bisporus genome to the soluble carbohydrates and the composition of mycelium grown compost, casing layer and fruiting bodies.

Conclusions: The compost grown vegetative mycelium of A. bisporus consumes a wide variety of monosaccharides. However, in fruiting bodies only hexose catabolism occurs, and no accumulation of other sugars was observed. This suggests that only hexoses or their conversion products are transported from the vegetative mycelium to the fruiting body, while the other sugars likely provide energy for growth and maintenance of the vegetative mycelium. Clear correlations were found between expression of the genes and composition of carbohydrates. Genes encoding plant cell wall polysaccharide degrading enzymes were mainly expressed in compost-grown mycelium, and largely absent in fruiting bodies. In contrast, genes encoding fungal cell wall polysaccharide modifying enzymes were expressed in both fruiting bodies and vegetative mycelium, but different gene sets were expressed in these samples.

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Schematic representation of the expression of genes of the different carbon metabolic pathways. Bars under the growth stages indicate the percentage of genes that are 2-fold upregulated (red), between 2-fold upregulated and 2-fold downregulated (green), and more than 2-fold downregulated (blue) in the sample compared to culture-grown mycelium.
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Figure 1: Schematic representation of the expression of genes of the different carbon metabolic pathways. Bars under the growth stages indicate the percentage of genes that are 2-fold upregulated (red), between 2-fold upregulated and 2-fold downregulated (green), and more than 2-fold downregulated (blue) in the sample compared to culture-grown mycelium.

Mentions: Most genes from glycolysis were moderately upregulated in compost and casing compared to undifferentiated mycelium grown on agar medium, while their levels were similar or downregulated in the fruiting bodies (Figure 1, Additional files 3 and 4). In contrast, the gluconeogenic gene encoding phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) was 8-fold upregulated in fruiting bodies.


Carbohydrate utilization and metabolism is highly differentiated in Agaricus bisporus.

Patyshakuliyeva A, Jurak E, Kohler A, Baker A, Battaglia E, de Bruijn W, Burton KS, Challen MP, Coutinho PM, Eastwood DC, Gruben BS, Mäkelä MR, Martin F, Nadal M, van den Brink J, Wiebenga A, Zhou M, Henrissat B, Kabel M, Gruppen H, de Vries RP - BMC Genomics (2013)

Schematic representation of the expression of genes of the different carbon metabolic pathways. Bars under the growth stages indicate the percentage of genes that are 2-fold upregulated (red), between 2-fold upregulated and 2-fold downregulated (green), and more than 2-fold downregulated (blue) in the sample compared to culture-grown mycelium.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3852267&req=5

Figure 1: Schematic representation of the expression of genes of the different carbon metabolic pathways. Bars under the growth stages indicate the percentage of genes that are 2-fold upregulated (red), between 2-fold upregulated and 2-fold downregulated (green), and more than 2-fold downregulated (blue) in the sample compared to culture-grown mycelium.
Mentions: Most genes from glycolysis were moderately upregulated in compost and casing compared to undifferentiated mycelium grown on agar medium, while their levels were similar or downregulated in the fruiting bodies (Figure 1, Additional files 3 and 4). In contrast, the gluconeogenic gene encoding phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) was 8-fold upregulated in fruiting bodies.

Bottom Line: Clear correlations were found between expression of the genes and composition of carbohydrates.Genes encoding plant cell wall polysaccharide degrading enzymes were mainly expressed in compost-grown mycelium, and largely absent in fruiting bodies.In contrast, genes encoding fungal cell wall polysaccharide modifying enzymes were expressed in both fruiting bodies and vegetative mycelium, but different gene sets were expressed in these samples.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre, Uppsalalaan 8, 3584 CT Utrecht, The Netherlands. r.devries@cbs.knaw.nl.

ABSTRACT

Background: Agaricus bisporus is commercially grown on compost, in which the available carbon sources consist mainly of plant-derived polysaccharides that are built out of various different constituent monosaccharides. The major constituent monosaccharides of these polysaccharides are glucose, xylose, and arabinose, while smaller amounts of galactose, glucuronic acid, rhamnose and mannose are also present.

Results: In this study, genes encoding putative enzymes from carbon metabolism were identified and their expression was studied in different growth stages of A. bisporus. We correlated the expression of genes encoding plant and fungal polysaccharide modifying enzymes identified in the A. bisporus genome to the soluble carbohydrates and the composition of mycelium grown compost, casing layer and fruiting bodies.

Conclusions: The compost grown vegetative mycelium of A. bisporus consumes a wide variety of monosaccharides. However, in fruiting bodies only hexose catabolism occurs, and no accumulation of other sugars was observed. This suggests that only hexoses or their conversion products are transported from the vegetative mycelium to the fruiting body, while the other sugars likely provide energy for growth and maintenance of the vegetative mycelium. Clear correlations were found between expression of the genes and composition of carbohydrates. Genes encoding plant cell wall polysaccharide degrading enzymes were mainly expressed in compost-grown mycelium, and largely absent in fruiting bodies. In contrast, genes encoding fungal cell wall polysaccharide modifying enzymes were expressed in both fruiting bodies and vegetative mycelium, but different gene sets were expressed in these samples.

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