Limits...
Replicability and heterogeneity of awake unrestrained canine FMRI responses.

Berns GS, Brooks A, Spivak M - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: Based on an anatomically placed region-of-interest, we compared the caudate response to a hand signal indicating the imminent availability of a food reward to a hand signal indicating no reward. 8 of 13 dogs had a positive differential caudate response to the signal indicating reward.The mean differential caudate response was 0.09%, which was similar to a comparable human study.These results show that canine fMRI is reliable and can be done with minimal stress to the dogs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Neuropolicy, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Previously, we demonstrated the possibility of fMRI in two awake and unrestrained dogs. Here, we determined the replicability and heterogeneity of these results in an additional 11 dogs for a total of 13 subjects. Based on an anatomically placed region-of-interest, we compared the caudate response to a hand signal indicating the imminent availability of a food reward to a hand signal indicating no reward. 8 of 13 dogs had a positive differential caudate response to the signal indicating reward. The mean differential caudate response was 0.09%, which was similar to a comparable human study. These results show that canine fMRI is reliable and can be done with minimal stress to the dogs.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Comparison of caudate response in humans and dogs.The human data is from an instrumental conditioning task. The caudate response is to a visual cue indicating the imminent receipt of fruit juice, to which participants had to press a button to receive the juice [17]. The canine data is in response to the hand signal indicating “reward.” For comparison to each other, both dog and human activations are referenced to an implicit baseline.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3852264&req=5

pone-0081698-g006: Comparison of caudate response in humans and dogs.The human data is from an instrumental conditioning task. The caudate response is to a visual cue indicating the imminent receipt of fruit juice, to which participants had to press a button to receive the juice [17]. The canine data is in response to the hand signal indicating “reward.” For comparison to each other, both dog and human activations are referenced to an implicit baseline.

Mentions: Although we did not find evidence for strong laterality within the caudate, there was still substantial heterogeneity in the overall level of activation in the caudate. As a point of reference, we compared the level of activation and heterogeneity of the dogs to a similar study we had conducted in humans [17]. In this experiment, human volunteers (N = 17) were instructed to press a button to a colored circle on a computer monitor. Pressing the button delivered a squirt of fruit juice into the participant's mouth 4 s later. On ‘catch’ trials, the juice was delivered at 8 s. Consistent with a reward-prediction error (RPE) model, we observed a significant striatal response to the cue in the regular trials. The form of this trial closely paralleled the dogs' task, which was to stay in the chin rest and await the delivery of a treat. Caudate ROIs were placed anatomically in the human study, and we fit the same gamma function to the human data as the dog data and estimated the subjectwise coefficients to the cue (Fig. 6). The median caudate activation of the dogs was 0.06% while in humans it was 0.14%. The 25th percentile was approximately zero, and both samples had one negative outlier. Interestingly, the dogs had a smaller range of caudate activations than the humans. The number of humans with a positive caudate response was 11 of 17 (65%) compared to 9 of 12 dogs (75%) with a positive caudate response to the hand signal indicating reward (i.e. not the differential).


Replicability and heterogeneity of awake unrestrained canine FMRI responses.

Berns GS, Brooks A, Spivak M - PLoS ONE (2013)

Comparison of caudate response in humans and dogs.The human data is from an instrumental conditioning task. The caudate response is to a visual cue indicating the imminent receipt of fruit juice, to which participants had to press a button to receive the juice [17]. The canine data is in response to the hand signal indicating “reward.” For comparison to each other, both dog and human activations are referenced to an implicit baseline.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3852264&req=5

pone-0081698-g006: Comparison of caudate response in humans and dogs.The human data is from an instrumental conditioning task. The caudate response is to a visual cue indicating the imminent receipt of fruit juice, to which participants had to press a button to receive the juice [17]. The canine data is in response to the hand signal indicating “reward.” For comparison to each other, both dog and human activations are referenced to an implicit baseline.
Mentions: Although we did not find evidence for strong laterality within the caudate, there was still substantial heterogeneity in the overall level of activation in the caudate. As a point of reference, we compared the level of activation and heterogeneity of the dogs to a similar study we had conducted in humans [17]. In this experiment, human volunteers (N = 17) were instructed to press a button to a colored circle on a computer monitor. Pressing the button delivered a squirt of fruit juice into the participant's mouth 4 s later. On ‘catch’ trials, the juice was delivered at 8 s. Consistent with a reward-prediction error (RPE) model, we observed a significant striatal response to the cue in the regular trials. The form of this trial closely paralleled the dogs' task, which was to stay in the chin rest and await the delivery of a treat. Caudate ROIs were placed anatomically in the human study, and we fit the same gamma function to the human data as the dog data and estimated the subjectwise coefficients to the cue (Fig. 6). The median caudate activation of the dogs was 0.06% while in humans it was 0.14%. The 25th percentile was approximately zero, and both samples had one negative outlier. Interestingly, the dogs had a smaller range of caudate activations than the humans. The number of humans with a positive caudate response was 11 of 17 (65%) compared to 9 of 12 dogs (75%) with a positive caudate response to the hand signal indicating reward (i.e. not the differential).

Bottom Line: Based on an anatomically placed region-of-interest, we compared the caudate response to a hand signal indicating the imminent availability of a food reward to a hand signal indicating no reward. 8 of 13 dogs had a positive differential caudate response to the signal indicating reward.The mean differential caudate response was 0.09%, which was similar to a comparable human study.These results show that canine fMRI is reliable and can be done with minimal stress to the dogs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Neuropolicy, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Previously, we demonstrated the possibility of fMRI in two awake and unrestrained dogs. Here, we determined the replicability and heterogeneity of these results in an additional 11 dogs for a total of 13 subjects. Based on an anatomically placed region-of-interest, we compared the caudate response to a hand signal indicating the imminent availability of a food reward to a hand signal indicating no reward. 8 of 13 dogs had a positive differential caudate response to the signal indicating reward. The mean differential caudate response was 0.09%, which was similar to a comparable human study. These results show that canine fMRI is reliable and can be done with minimal stress to the dogs.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus