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Positive and negative reinforcement activate human auditory cortex.

Weis T, Puschmann S, Brechmann A, Thiel CM - Front Hum Neurosci (2013)

Bottom Line: Prior studies suggest that reward modulates neural activity in sensory cortices, but less is known about punishment.A similar pattern of neural activity for both gaining a reward and avoiding a loss was also seen in right middle temporal gyrus, bilateral insula and pre-supplemental motor area, here however neural activity was lower after correct responses compared to incorrect responses.To summarize, this study shows that the activation of sensory cortices, as previously shown for gaining a reward is also seen during avoiding a loss.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Biological Psychology Lab, Department of Psychology, European Medical School, Carl von Ossietzky University Oldenburg, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Prior studies suggest that reward modulates neural activity in sensory cortices, but less is known about punishment. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and an auditory discrimination task, where participants had to judge the duration of frequency modulated tones. In one session correct performance resulted in financial gains at the end of the trial, in a second session incorrect performance resulted in financial loss. Incorrect performance in the rewarded as well as correct performance in the punishment condition resulted in a neutral outcome. The size of gains and losses was either low or high (10 or 50 Euro cent) depending on the direction of frequency modulation. We analyzed neural activity at the end of the trial, during reinforcement, and found increased neural activity in auditory cortex when gaining a financial reward as compared to gaining no reward and when avoiding financial loss as compared to receiving a financial loss. This was independent on the size of gains and losses. A similar pattern of neural activity for both gaining a reward and avoiding a loss was also seen in right middle temporal gyrus, bilateral insula and pre-supplemental motor area, here however neural activity was lower after correct responses compared to incorrect responses. To summarize, this study shows that the activation of sensory cortices, as previously shown for gaining a reward is also seen during avoiding a loss.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Main effect of correctness. Beta values in right auditory cortex (A) show a higher neural activity for correct trials compared to incorrect trials. Other brain areas showing differential responses were the right middle temporal gyrus (B), the right insula (C), and the pre-supplemental motor area (D) among others. Note that here differences are due to higher neural activity in incorrect compared to correct trials. Activations are superimposed on the mean of the individual subject T1 images for at p < 0.001 (uncorr., k > 110 voxels). Note that the extraction of beta values is only illustrative and inferences were made from the original analysis.
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Figure 2: Main effect of correctness. Beta values in right auditory cortex (A) show a higher neural activity for correct trials compared to incorrect trials. Other brain areas showing differential responses were the right middle temporal gyrus (B), the right insula (C), and the pre-supplemental motor area (D) among others. Note that here differences are due to higher neural activity in incorrect compared to correct trials. Activations are superimposed on the mean of the individual subject T1 images for at p < 0.001 (uncorr., k > 110 voxels). Note that the extraction of beta values is only illustrative and inferences were made from the original analysis.

Mentions: During reinforcement, we found a main effect of correctness in right auditory cortex which was due to higher activity for correct compared to incorrect trials for both reinforcement types. In other words, the auditory cortex was responsive to either obtaining a reward or avoiding a punishment after a correct discrimination was made. Other regions showing a main effect of correctness were the right insula, the supplemental motor area and the right middle temporal lobe. Note however that here the effect was due to an enhanced response to incorrect compared to the correct trials, i.e., when no reward was obtained or when a punishment occurred after making a mistake (Figure 2, Table A1A).


Positive and negative reinforcement activate human auditory cortex.

Weis T, Puschmann S, Brechmann A, Thiel CM - Front Hum Neurosci (2013)

Main effect of correctness. Beta values in right auditory cortex (A) show a higher neural activity for correct trials compared to incorrect trials. Other brain areas showing differential responses were the right middle temporal gyrus (B), the right insula (C), and the pre-supplemental motor area (D) among others. Note that here differences are due to higher neural activity in incorrect compared to correct trials. Activations are superimposed on the mean of the individual subject T1 images for at p < 0.001 (uncorr., k > 110 voxels). Note that the extraction of beta values is only illustrative and inferences were made from the original analysis.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3852233&req=5

Figure 2: Main effect of correctness. Beta values in right auditory cortex (A) show a higher neural activity for correct trials compared to incorrect trials. Other brain areas showing differential responses were the right middle temporal gyrus (B), the right insula (C), and the pre-supplemental motor area (D) among others. Note that here differences are due to higher neural activity in incorrect compared to correct trials. Activations are superimposed on the mean of the individual subject T1 images for at p < 0.001 (uncorr., k > 110 voxels). Note that the extraction of beta values is only illustrative and inferences were made from the original analysis.
Mentions: During reinforcement, we found a main effect of correctness in right auditory cortex which was due to higher activity for correct compared to incorrect trials for both reinforcement types. In other words, the auditory cortex was responsive to either obtaining a reward or avoiding a punishment after a correct discrimination was made. Other regions showing a main effect of correctness were the right insula, the supplemental motor area and the right middle temporal lobe. Note however that here the effect was due to an enhanced response to incorrect compared to the correct trials, i.e., when no reward was obtained or when a punishment occurred after making a mistake (Figure 2, Table A1A).

Bottom Line: Prior studies suggest that reward modulates neural activity in sensory cortices, but less is known about punishment.A similar pattern of neural activity for both gaining a reward and avoiding a loss was also seen in right middle temporal gyrus, bilateral insula and pre-supplemental motor area, here however neural activity was lower after correct responses compared to incorrect responses.To summarize, this study shows that the activation of sensory cortices, as previously shown for gaining a reward is also seen during avoiding a loss.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Biological Psychology Lab, Department of Psychology, European Medical School, Carl von Ossietzky University Oldenburg, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Prior studies suggest that reward modulates neural activity in sensory cortices, but less is known about punishment. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and an auditory discrimination task, where participants had to judge the duration of frequency modulated tones. In one session correct performance resulted in financial gains at the end of the trial, in a second session incorrect performance resulted in financial loss. Incorrect performance in the rewarded as well as correct performance in the punishment condition resulted in a neutral outcome. The size of gains and losses was either low or high (10 or 50 Euro cent) depending on the direction of frequency modulation. We analyzed neural activity at the end of the trial, during reinforcement, and found increased neural activity in auditory cortex when gaining a financial reward as compared to gaining no reward and when avoiding financial loss as compared to receiving a financial loss. This was independent on the size of gains and losses. A similar pattern of neural activity for both gaining a reward and avoiding a loss was also seen in right middle temporal gyrus, bilateral insula and pre-supplemental motor area, here however neural activity was lower after correct responses compared to incorrect responses. To summarize, this study shows that the activation of sensory cortices, as previously shown for gaining a reward is also seen during avoiding a loss.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus