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The venom gland transcriptome of Latrodectus tredecimguttatus revealed by deep sequencing and cDNA library analysis.

He Q, Duan Z, Yu Y, Liu Z, Liu Z, Liang S - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: In the present study, we combined next-generation sequencing and conventional DNA sequencing to construct a venom gland transcriptome of the spider L. tredecimguttatus, which resulted in the identification of 9,666 and 480 high-confidence proteins among 34,334 de novo sequences and 1,024 cDNA sequences, respectively, by assembly, translation, filtering, quantification and annotation.Few ion channels were expressed in venom gland cells, suggesting a possible mechanism of protection from the attack of their own toxins.The present study provides a gland transcriptome profile and extends our understanding of the toxinome of spiders and coordination mechanism for toxin production in protein expression quantity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Cooperative innovation center of engineering and new products for developmental biology, College of Life Sciences, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, P. R. China.

ABSTRACT
Latrodectus tredecimguttatus, commonly known as black widow spider, is well known for its dangerous bite. Although its venom has been characterized extensively, some fundamental questions about its molecular composition remain unanswered. The limited transcriptome and genome data available prevent further understanding of spider venom at the molecular level. In the present study, we combined next-generation sequencing and conventional DNA sequencing to construct a venom gland transcriptome of the spider L. tredecimguttatus, which resulted in the identification of 9,666 and 480 high-confidence proteins among 34,334 de novo sequences and 1,024 cDNA sequences, respectively, by assembly, translation, filtering, quantification and annotation. Extensive functional analyses of these proteins indicated that mRNAs involved in RNA transport and spliceosome, protein translation, processing and transport were highly enriched in the venom gland, which is consistent with the specific function of venom glands, namely the production of toxins. Furthermore, we identified 146 toxin-like proteins forming 12 families, including 6 new families in this spider in which α-LTX-Lt1a family2 is firstly identified as a subfamily of α-LTX-Lt1a family. The toxins were classified according to their bioactivities into five categories that functioned in a coordinate way. Few ion channels were expressed in venom gland cells, suggesting a possible mechanism of protection from the attack of their own toxins. The present study provides a gland transcriptome profile and extends our understanding of the toxinome of spiders and coordination mechanism for toxin production in protein expression quantity.

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pone-0081357-g001: The pipeline of data process and analysis.

Mentions: Here, we present the first transcriptomic profile of the venom gland of the spider L. tredecimguttatus obtained by combining cDNA library sequencing and next-generation sequencing (Illumina) coupled with de novo assembly (Figure 1). It includes 10,379 transcripts encoding 9,666 high-confidence proteins and 146 toxins. Our bioinformatics analysis revealed functional relationships between them and identified characteristics specific to the venom gland transcriptome, which broadens our understanding of spider venom composition and the cellular metabolism of the spider venom gland. Our findings suggest that deep sequencing coupled with de novo assembly is a powerful method for the study of the transcriptome of organisms lacking a reference genomic sequence.


The venom gland transcriptome of Latrodectus tredecimguttatus revealed by deep sequencing and cDNA library analysis.

He Q, Duan Z, Yu Y, Liu Z, Liu Z, Liang S - PLoS ONE (2013)

The pipeline of data process and analysis.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3842942&req=5

pone-0081357-g001: The pipeline of data process and analysis.
Mentions: Here, we present the first transcriptomic profile of the venom gland of the spider L. tredecimguttatus obtained by combining cDNA library sequencing and next-generation sequencing (Illumina) coupled with de novo assembly (Figure 1). It includes 10,379 transcripts encoding 9,666 high-confidence proteins and 146 toxins. Our bioinformatics analysis revealed functional relationships between them and identified characteristics specific to the venom gland transcriptome, which broadens our understanding of spider venom composition and the cellular metabolism of the spider venom gland. Our findings suggest that deep sequencing coupled with de novo assembly is a powerful method for the study of the transcriptome of organisms lacking a reference genomic sequence.

Bottom Line: In the present study, we combined next-generation sequencing and conventional DNA sequencing to construct a venom gland transcriptome of the spider L. tredecimguttatus, which resulted in the identification of 9,666 and 480 high-confidence proteins among 34,334 de novo sequences and 1,024 cDNA sequences, respectively, by assembly, translation, filtering, quantification and annotation.Few ion channels were expressed in venom gland cells, suggesting a possible mechanism of protection from the attack of their own toxins.The present study provides a gland transcriptome profile and extends our understanding of the toxinome of spiders and coordination mechanism for toxin production in protein expression quantity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Cooperative innovation center of engineering and new products for developmental biology, College of Life Sciences, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, P. R. China.

ABSTRACT
Latrodectus tredecimguttatus, commonly known as black widow spider, is well known for its dangerous bite. Although its venom has been characterized extensively, some fundamental questions about its molecular composition remain unanswered. The limited transcriptome and genome data available prevent further understanding of spider venom at the molecular level. In the present study, we combined next-generation sequencing and conventional DNA sequencing to construct a venom gland transcriptome of the spider L. tredecimguttatus, which resulted in the identification of 9,666 and 480 high-confidence proteins among 34,334 de novo sequences and 1,024 cDNA sequences, respectively, by assembly, translation, filtering, quantification and annotation. Extensive functional analyses of these proteins indicated that mRNAs involved in RNA transport and spliceosome, protein translation, processing and transport were highly enriched in the venom gland, which is consistent with the specific function of venom glands, namely the production of toxins. Furthermore, we identified 146 toxin-like proteins forming 12 families, including 6 new families in this spider in which α-LTX-Lt1a family2 is firstly identified as a subfamily of α-LTX-Lt1a family. The toxins were classified according to their bioactivities into five categories that functioned in a coordinate way. Few ion channels were expressed in venom gland cells, suggesting a possible mechanism of protection from the attack of their own toxins. The present study provides a gland transcriptome profile and extends our understanding of the toxinome of spiders and coordination mechanism for toxin production in protein expression quantity.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus