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Post-weaning diet affects faecal microbial composition but not selected adipose gene expression in the cat (Felis catus).

Bermingham EN, Kittelmann S, Young W, Kerr KR, Swanson KS, Roy NC, Thomas DG - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: Faecal samples were collected at wk 8 and 17 of age.DNA was isolated from faeces and bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons were analysed by pyrosequencing.Correlations between the expression levels of genes involved in glucose and insulin pathways and faecal Bacteriodetes and Firmicutes phyla were identified.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Food Nutrition & Health, AgResearch Grasslands, Palmerston North, New Zealand.

ABSTRACT
The effects of pre- (i.e., gestation and during lactation) and post-weaning diet on the composition of faecal bacterial communities and adipose expression of key genes in the glucose and insulin pathways were investigated in the cat. Queens were maintained on a moderate protein:fat:carbohydrate kibbled ("Diet A"; 35:20:28% DM; n  =  4) or high protein:fat:carbohydrate canned ("Diet B"; 45:37:2% DM; n = 3) diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. Offspring were weaned onto these diets in a nested design (n  =  5 per treatment). Faecal samples were collected at wk 8 and 17 of age. DNA was isolated from faeces and bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons were analysed by pyrosequencing. RNA was extracted from blood (wk 18) and adipose tissue and ovarian/testicular tissues (wk 24) and gene expression levels determined using RT-qPCR. Differences (P<0.05) in composition of faecal bacteria were observed between pregnant queens fed Diet A or B. However, pre-weaning diet had little effect on faecal bacterial composition in weaned kittens. In contrast, post-weaning diet altered bacterial population profiles in the kittens. Increased (P<0.05) abundance of Firmicutes (77% vs 52% of total reads) and Actinobacteria (0.8% vs 0.2% of total reads), and decreased (P<0.05) abundance of Fusobacteria (1.6% vs 18.4% of total reads) were observed for kittens fed the Diet A compared to those fed Diet B post-weaning. Feeding Diet B pre-weaning increased (P<0.05) the expression levels of INRS, LEPT, PAI-1 and tended to increase GLUT1, while the expression levels of IRS-1 in blood increased in kittens fed Diet A pre-weaning. Post-weaning diet had no effect on expression levels of target genes. Correlations between the expression levels of genes involved in glucose and insulin pathways and faecal Bacteriodetes and Firmicutes phyla were identified. The reasons for why post-weaning diet affects microbial populations and not gene expression levels are of interest.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Correlation heatmaps of faecal microbiota and gene expression in (A) blood, (B) adipose fat tissue, and (C) reproductive tissue.Cell colour indicates strength and direction of correlation, with blue representing maximal negative correlation and red representing maximal positive correlation.
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pone-0080992-g006: Correlation heatmaps of faecal microbiota and gene expression in (A) blood, (B) adipose fat tissue, and (C) reproductive tissue.Cell colour indicates strength and direction of correlation, with blue representing maximal negative correlation and red representing maximal positive correlation.

Mentions: Maternal diet affected (P<0.05) the expression levels of LEPT, PAI-1 and INSR and tended (P<0.10) to affect the expression of GLUT1 (Table 6) in blood. In abdominal fat, expression levels of IRS-1 was affected by pre-weaning diet (P<0.05). There was no effect of pre-weaning diet in the expression levels of genes in reproductive tissues. There was no effect (P>0.05) of post-weaning diet on gene expression levels in the kittens fed either diet (Table 6). Despite only limited numbers of genes showing differential expression due to dietary treatment, strong correlations were observed between the various members of the microbiota and gene expression in blood, fat and reproductive tissue (Figure 6). Abundance of Firmicutes was negatively correlated with expression of most genes examined in blood and fat, whereas abundance of Bacteroidetes tended to be positively correlated with gene expression in blood and fat. In contrast, the correlation between Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes abundance and gene expression levels showed the opposite pattern in reproductive tissue, with the Bacteroidetes showing a negative correlation with gene expression, while the Firmicutes showed a positive correlation. The correlation profiles of the Actinobacteria abundance and gene expression levels were also most closely similar to that of the Firmicutes compared to other bacterial groups.


Post-weaning diet affects faecal microbial composition but not selected adipose gene expression in the cat (Felis catus).

Bermingham EN, Kittelmann S, Young W, Kerr KR, Swanson KS, Roy NC, Thomas DG - PLoS ONE (2013)

Correlation heatmaps of faecal microbiota and gene expression in (A) blood, (B) adipose fat tissue, and (C) reproductive tissue.Cell colour indicates strength and direction of correlation, with blue representing maximal negative correlation and red representing maximal positive correlation.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3842929&req=5

pone-0080992-g006: Correlation heatmaps of faecal microbiota and gene expression in (A) blood, (B) adipose fat tissue, and (C) reproductive tissue.Cell colour indicates strength and direction of correlation, with blue representing maximal negative correlation and red representing maximal positive correlation.
Mentions: Maternal diet affected (P<0.05) the expression levels of LEPT, PAI-1 and INSR and tended (P<0.10) to affect the expression of GLUT1 (Table 6) in blood. In abdominal fat, expression levels of IRS-1 was affected by pre-weaning diet (P<0.05). There was no effect of pre-weaning diet in the expression levels of genes in reproductive tissues. There was no effect (P>0.05) of post-weaning diet on gene expression levels in the kittens fed either diet (Table 6). Despite only limited numbers of genes showing differential expression due to dietary treatment, strong correlations were observed between the various members of the microbiota and gene expression in blood, fat and reproductive tissue (Figure 6). Abundance of Firmicutes was negatively correlated with expression of most genes examined in blood and fat, whereas abundance of Bacteroidetes tended to be positively correlated with gene expression in blood and fat. In contrast, the correlation between Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes abundance and gene expression levels showed the opposite pattern in reproductive tissue, with the Bacteroidetes showing a negative correlation with gene expression, while the Firmicutes showed a positive correlation. The correlation profiles of the Actinobacteria abundance and gene expression levels were also most closely similar to that of the Firmicutes compared to other bacterial groups.

Bottom Line: Faecal samples were collected at wk 8 and 17 of age.DNA was isolated from faeces and bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons were analysed by pyrosequencing.Correlations between the expression levels of genes involved in glucose and insulin pathways and faecal Bacteriodetes and Firmicutes phyla were identified.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Food Nutrition & Health, AgResearch Grasslands, Palmerston North, New Zealand.

ABSTRACT
The effects of pre- (i.e., gestation and during lactation) and post-weaning diet on the composition of faecal bacterial communities and adipose expression of key genes in the glucose and insulin pathways were investigated in the cat. Queens were maintained on a moderate protein:fat:carbohydrate kibbled ("Diet A"; 35:20:28% DM; n  =  4) or high protein:fat:carbohydrate canned ("Diet B"; 45:37:2% DM; n = 3) diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. Offspring were weaned onto these diets in a nested design (n  =  5 per treatment). Faecal samples were collected at wk 8 and 17 of age. DNA was isolated from faeces and bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons were analysed by pyrosequencing. RNA was extracted from blood (wk 18) and adipose tissue and ovarian/testicular tissues (wk 24) and gene expression levels determined using RT-qPCR. Differences (P<0.05) in composition of faecal bacteria were observed between pregnant queens fed Diet A or B. However, pre-weaning diet had little effect on faecal bacterial composition in weaned kittens. In contrast, post-weaning diet altered bacterial population profiles in the kittens. Increased (P<0.05) abundance of Firmicutes (77% vs 52% of total reads) and Actinobacteria (0.8% vs 0.2% of total reads), and decreased (P<0.05) abundance of Fusobacteria (1.6% vs 18.4% of total reads) were observed for kittens fed the Diet A compared to those fed Diet B post-weaning. Feeding Diet B pre-weaning increased (P<0.05) the expression levels of INRS, LEPT, PAI-1 and tended to increase GLUT1, while the expression levels of IRS-1 in blood increased in kittens fed Diet A pre-weaning. Post-weaning diet had no effect on expression levels of target genes. Correlations between the expression levels of genes involved in glucose and insulin pathways and faecal Bacteriodetes and Firmicutes phyla were identified. The reasons for why post-weaning diet affects microbial populations and not gene expression levels are of interest.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus