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Post-weaning diet affects faecal microbial composition but not selected adipose gene expression in the cat (Felis catus).

Bermingham EN, Kittelmann S, Young W, Kerr KR, Swanson KS, Roy NC, Thomas DG - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: Faecal samples were collected at wk 8 and 17 of age.DNA was isolated from faeces and bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons were analysed by pyrosequencing.Correlations between the expression levels of genes involved in glucose and insulin pathways and faecal Bacteriodetes and Firmicutes phyla were identified.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Food Nutrition & Health, AgResearch Grasslands, Palmerston North, New Zealand.

ABSTRACT
The effects of pre- (i.e., gestation and during lactation) and post-weaning diet on the composition of faecal bacterial communities and adipose expression of key genes in the glucose and insulin pathways were investigated in the cat. Queens were maintained on a moderate protein:fat:carbohydrate kibbled ("Diet A"; 35:20:28% DM; n  =  4) or high protein:fat:carbohydrate canned ("Diet B"; 45:37:2% DM; n = 3) diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. Offspring were weaned onto these diets in a nested design (n  =  5 per treatment). Faecal samples were collected at wk 8 and 17 of age. DNA was isolated from faeces and bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons were analysed by pyrosequencing. RNA was extracted from blood (wk 18) and adipose tissue and ovarian/testicular tissues (wk 24) and gene expression levels determined using RT-qPCR. Differences (P<0.05) in composition of faecal bacteria were observed between pregnant queens fed Diet A or B. However, pre-weaning diet had little effect on faecal bacterial composition in weaned kittens. In contrast, post-weaning diet altered bacterial population profiles in the kittens. Increased (P<0.05) abundance of Firmicutes (77% vs 52% of total reads) and Actinobacteria (0.8% vs 0.2% of total reads), and decreased (P<0.05) abundance of Fusobacteria (1.6% vs 18.4% of total reads) were observed for kittens fed the Diet A compared to those fed Diet B post-weaning. Feeding Diet B pre-weaning increased (P<0.05) the expression levels of INRS, LEPT, PAI-1 and tended to increase GLUT1, while the expression levels of IRS-1 in blood increased in kittens fed Diet A pre-weaning. Post-weaning diet had no effect on expression levels of target genes. Correlations between the expression levels of genes involved in glucose and insulin pathways and faecal Bacteriodetes and Firmicutes phyla were identified. The reasons for why post-weaning diet affects microbial populations and not gene expression levels are of interest.

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Principal Coordinate Analysis plot of weighted Unifrac phylogenetic distances showing the similarities between bacterial communities of queens fed Diet A or Diet B and their offspring fed Diet A (B-A or A-A) or Diet B (B-B or A-B) post-weaning.Percentage of variation captured by each component indicated on axes.
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pone-0080992-g004: Principal Coordinate Analysis plot of weighted Unifrac phylogenetic distances showing the similarities between bacterial communities of queens fed Diet A or Diet B and their offspring fed Diet A (B-A or A-A) or Diet B (B-B or A-B) post-weaning.Percentage of variation captured by each component indicated on axes.

Mentions: There was no effect of sampling age on the microbial populations (8 or 17 wk, data not shown), therefore the results from these two periods were pooled. In kittens, the diversity of the bacterial population was affected by post-weaning diet (Figure 3). Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) of weighted and unweighted Unifrac phylogenetic distances showed that the overall microbiota community structure was most similar between offspring fed with the same post-weaning diet, regardless of the mother’s diet (Figure 4 and 5). Multivariate analysis indicated that post weaning diet had a significant effect on community composition (P<0.001), while differences between pre-weaning diet tended towards significance (P = 0.07). No significant interaction between pre- and post-weaning diets were observed (P = 0.49).


Post-weaning diet affects faecal microbial composition but not selected adipose gene expression in the cat (Felis catus).

Bermingham EN, Kittelmann S, Young W, Kerr KR, Swanson KS, Roy NC, Thomas DG - PLoS ONE (2013)

Principal Coordinate Analysis plot of weighted Unifrac phylogenetic distances showing the similarities between bacterial communities of queens fed Diet A or Diet B and their offspring fed Diet A (B-A or A-A) or Diet B (B-B or A-B) post-weaning.Percentage of variation captured by each component indicated on axes.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3842929&req=5

pone-0080992-g004: Principal Coordinate Analysis plot of weighted Unifrac phylogenetic distances showing the similarities between bacterial communities of queens fed Diet A or Diet B and their offspring fed Diet A (B-A or A-A) or Diet B (B-B or A-B) post-weaning.Percentage of variation captured by each component indicated on axes.
Mentions: There was no effect of sampling age on the microbial populations (8 or 17 wk, data not shown), therefore the results from these two periods were pooled. In kittens, the diversity of the bacterial population was affected by post-weaning diet (Figure 3). Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) of weighted and unweighted Unifrac phylogenetic distances showed that the overall microbiota community structure was most similar between offspring fed with the same post-weaning diet, regardless of the mother’s diet (Figure 4 and 5). Multivariate analysis indicated that post weaning diet had a significant effect on community composition (P<0.001), while differences between pre-weaning diet tended towards significance (P = 0.07). No significant interaction between pre- and post-weaning diets were observed (P = 0.49).

Bottom Line: Faecal samples were collected at wk 8 and 17 of age.DNA was isolated from faeces and bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons were analysed by pyrosequencing.Correlations between the expression levels of genes involved in glucose and insulin pathways and faecal Bacteriodetes and Firmicutes phyla were identified.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Food Nutrition & Health, AgResearch Grasslands, Palmerston North, New Zealand.

ABSTRACT
The effects of pre- (i.e., gestation and during lactation) and post-weaning diet on the composition of faecal bacterial communities and adipose expression of key genes in the glucose and insulin pathways were investigated in the cat. Queens were maintained on a moderate protein:fat:carbohydrate kibbled ("Diet A"; 35:20:28% DM; n  =  4) or high protein:fat:carbohydrate canned ("Diet B"; 45:37:2% DM; n = 3) diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. Offspring were weaned onto these diets in a nested design (n  =  5 per treatment). Faecal samples were collected at wk 8 and 17 of age. DNA was isolated from faeces and bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons were analysed by pyrosequencing. RNA was extracted from blood (wk 18) and adipose tissue and ovarian/testicular tissues (wk 24) and gene expression levels determined using RT-qPCR. Differences (P<0.05) in composition of faecal bacteria were observed between pregnant queens fed Diet A or B. However, pre-weaning diet had little effect on faecal bacterial composition in weaned kittens. In contrast, post-weaning diet altered bacterial population profiles in the kittens. Increased (P<0.05) abundance of Firmicutes (77% vs 52% of total reads) and Actinobacteria (0.8% vs 0.2% of total reads), and decreased (P<0.05) abundance of Fusobacteria (1.6% vs 18.4% of total reads) were observed for kittens fed the Diet A compared to those fed Diet B post-weaning. Feeding Diet B pre-weaning increased (P<0.05) the expression levels of INRS, LEPT, PAI-1 and tended to increase GLUT1, while the expression levels of IRS-1 in blood increased in kittens fed Diet A pre-weaning. Post-weaning diet had no effect on expression levels of target genes. Correlations between the expression levels of genes involved in glucose and insulin pathways and faecal Bacteriodetes and Firmicutes phyla were identified. The reasons for why post-weaning diet affects microbial populations and not gene expression levels are of interest.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus