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The way we encounter reading material influences how frequently we mind wander.

Varao Sousa TL, Carriere JS, Smilek D - Front Psychol (2013)

Bottom Line: We examined whether different encounters of reading material influence the likelihood of mind wandering, memory for the material, and the ratings of interest in the material.Finally, within the silent reading and listening encounters we observed negative relations between mind wandering and both memory performance and interest in the material, replicating previous findings.Taken together, the present findings improve our understanding of the nature of mind wandering while reading, and have potentially important implications for readers seeking to take advantage of the convenience of audiobooks and podcasts.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo Waterloo, ON, Canada.

ABSTRACT
We examined whether different encounters of reading material influence the likelihood of mind wandering, memory for the material, and the ratings of interest in the material. In a within-subjects design participants experienced three different reading encounters: (1) reading a passage aloud, (2) listening to a passage being read to them, and (3) reading a passage silently. Throughout each reading encounter probes were given in order to identify mind wandering. After finishing the passage participants also rated how interesting it was and completed a content recognition test. Results showed that reading aloud led to the least amount of mind wandering, while listening to the passage led to the most mind wandering. Listening to the passage was also associated with the poorest memory performance and the least interest in the material. Finally, within the silent reading and listening encounters we observed negative relations between mind wandering and both memory performance and interest in the material, replicating previous findings. Taken together, the present findings improve our understanding of the nature of mind wandering while reading, and have potentially important implications for readers seeking to take advantage of the convenience of audiobooks and podcasts.

No MeSH data available.


Mean Memory Test Proportion Correct across reading encounters. Error bars represent one standard error of the mean.
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Figure 2: Mean Memory Test Proportion Correct across reading encounters. Error bars represent one standard error of the mean.

Mentions: The average Memory Test Proportion Correct for each Encounter Type and both Samples are displayed in Figure 2. As with mind wandering reports, we performed a set of repeated measures ANOVAs to detect differences in memory scores between reading encounters in each sample, separately. These analyses confirmed significant differences in Memory Test Proportion Correct for both Sample 1, F(2, 210) = 7.09, MSE = 0.03, p = 0.001, η2p = 0.06, and Sample 2, F(2, 208) = 12.25, MSE = 0.02, p < 0.001, η2p = 0.11. Planned t-test analyses revealed significant differences such that Listening led to worse performance than Reading Aloud for both Sample 1, t(105) = 3.64, p < 0.001, 95% CI [−0.13 to −0.04], r = 0.34, and Sample 2, t(104) = 4.82, p < 0.001, 95% CI [−0.14 to −0.06], r = 0.43, and also compared to Reading Silently for Sample 1 t(105) = 2.62, p = 0.01, 95% CI [−0.11 to −0.01], r = 0.25, and Sample 2, t(104) = 3.43, p < 0.001, 95% CI [−0.11 to −0.03], r = 0.32. On the other hand, despite significant differences in Proportion of Mind Wandering, no significant differences were found between memory test scores for Reading Aloud and Reading Silently for either Sample 1, t(105) = 0.95, p = 0.343, 95% CI [−0.02–0.06] or Sample 2, t(104) = 1.33, p = 0.188, 95% CI [−0.01–0.07]. Again the results appear to show good replication across the two samples, and an omnibus ANOVA, including Sample as a between participants factor and Encounter Type as a within participant factor, confirmed this view with a significant main effect of Encounter Type, F(2, 418) = 18.67, MSE = 0.02, p < 0.001, η2p = 0.08, but neither a significant main effect of Sample (p = 0.63) nor a significant interaction of Encounter Type and Sample (p = 0.87).


The way we encounter reading material influences how frequently we mind wander.

Varao Sousa TL, Carriere JS, Smilek D - Front Psychol (2013)

Mean Memory Test Proportion Correct across reading encounters. Error bars represent one standard error of the mean.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3842750&req=5

Figure 2: Mean Memory Test Proportion Correct across reading encounters. Error bars represent one standard error of the mean.
Mentions: The average Memory Test Proportion Correct for each Encounter Type and both Samples are displayed in Figure 2. As with mind wandering reports, we performed a set of repeated measures ANOVAs to detect differences in memory scores between reading encounters in each sample, separately. These analyses confirmed significant differences in Memory Test Proportion Correct for both Sample 1, F(2, 210) = 7.09, MSE = 0.03, p = 0.001, η2p = 0.06, and Sample 2, F(2, 208) = 12.25, MSE = 0.02, p < 0.001, η2p = 0.11. Planned t-test analyses revealed significant differences such that Listening led to worse performance than Reading Aloud for both Sample 1, t(105) = 3.64, p < 0.001, 95% CI [−0.13 to −0.04], r = 0.34, and Sample 2, t(104) = 4.82, p < 0.001, 95% CI [−0.14 to −0.06], r = 0.43, and also compared to Reading Silently for Sample 1 t(105) = 2.62, p = 0.01, 95% CI [−0.11 to −0.01], r = 0.25, and Sample 2, t(104) = 3.43, p < 0.001, 95% CI [−0.11 to −0.03], r = 0.32. On the other hand, despite significant differences in Proportion of Mind Wandering, no significant differences were found between memory test scores for Reading Aloud and Reading Silently for either Sample 1, t(105) = 0.95, p = 0.343, 95% CI [−0.02–0.06] or Sample 2, t(104) = 1.33, p = 0.188, 95% CI [−0.01–0.07]. Again the results appear to show good replication across the two samples, and an omnibus ANOVA, including Sample as a between participants factor and Encounter Type as a within participant factor, confirmed this view with a significant main effect of Encounter Type, F(2, 418) = 18.67, MSE = 0.02, p < 0.001, η2p = 0.08, but neither a significant main effect of Sample (p = 0.63) nor a significant interaction of Encounter Type and Sample (p = 0.87).

Bottom Line: We examined whether different encounters of reading material influence the likelihood of mind wandering, memory for the material, and the ratings of interest in the material.Finally, within the silent reading and listening encounters we observed negative relations between mind wandering and both memory performance and interest in the material, replicating previous findings.Taken together, the present findings improve our understanding of the nature of mind wandering while reading, and have potentially important implications for readers seeking to take advantage of the convenience of audiobooks and podcasts.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo Waterloo, ON, Canada.

ABSTRACT
We examined whether different encounters of reading material influence the likelihood of mind wandering, memory for the material, and the ratings of interest in the material. In a within-subjects design participants experienced three different reading encounters: (1) reading a passage aloud, (2) listening to a passage being read to them, and (3) reading a passage silently. Throughout each reading encounter probes were given in order to identify mind wandering. After finishing the passage participants also rated how interesting it was and completed a content recognition test. Results showed that reading aloud led to the least amount of mind wandering, while listening to the passage led to the most mind wandering. Listening to the passage was also associated with the poorest memory performance and the least interest in the material. Finally, within the silent reading and listening encounters we observed negative relations between mind wandering and both memory performance and interest in the material, replicating previous findings. Taken together, the present findings improve our understanding of the nature of mind wandering while reading, and have potentially important implications for readers seeking to take advantage of the convenience of audiobooks and podcasts.

No MeSH data available.