Limits...
European Union's public fishing access agreements in developing countries.

Le Manach F, Chaboud C, Copeland D, Cury P, Gascuel D, Kleisner KM, Standing A, Sumaila UR, Zeller D, Pauly D - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: Although European public fishing agreements are commented on regularly and considered to be transparent, this is the first global and historical study on the fee regime that governs them.We find that the EU has subsidized these agreements at an average of 75% of their cost (financial contribution agreed upon in the agreements), while private European business interests paid the equivalent of 1.5% of the value of the fish that was eventually landed.This raises questions of fisheries benefit-sharing and resource-use equity that the EU has the potential to address during the nearly completed reform of its Common Fisheries Policy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Sea Around Us Project, Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada ; Unité Mixte de Recherche 212 Ecosystèmes Marins Exploités, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Sète, France.

ABSTRACT
The imperative to increase seafood supply while dealing with its overfished local stocks has pushed the European Union (EU) and its Member States to fish in the Exclusive Economic Zones of other countries through various types of fishing agreements for decades. Although European public fishing agreements are commented on regularly and considered to be transparent, this is the first global and historical study on the fee regime that governs them. We find that the EU has subsidized these agreements at an average of 75% of their cost (financial contribution agreed upon in the agreements), while private European business interests paid the equivalent of 1.5% of the value of the fish that was eventually landed. This raises questions of fisheries benefit-sharing and resource-use equity that the EU has the potential to address during the nearly completed reform of its Common Fisheries Policy.

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Cost of tuna agreements for the industry.Ratio of fees paid by the industry relative to landed value for the tuna component of all agreements. This figure only includes agreements for which there were tuna quotas. The solid line represents the median, while the grey area represents the limit beyond which a point is considered to be an outlier [data points below quartile1−1.5*(quartile3–quartile2), or above quartile3+1.5*(quartile3–quartile2). The ‘smooth.spline’ function in R was used [82], with a smoothing window ‘spar’ set to 0.5]. Note that for 2012, we considered the ex-vessel price of tuna to be 2,000 EUR/t, based on historical trends and various sources of information. This graph is based on 218 ‘country/year’ datapoints. Note that liners usually pay lower fees and also have lower catches than purse-seiners; however, both gear types were given the same weight here (the difference between weighted and non-weighted results was minimal). The implementation of the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) and its three reforms (the third one being ongoing) are indicated by black arrows.
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pone-0079899-g005: Cost of tuna agreements for the industry.Ratio of fees paid by the industry relative to landed value for the tuna component of all agreements. This figure only includes agreements for which there were tuna quotas. The solid line represents the median, while the grey area represents the limit beyond which a point is considered to be an outlier [data points below quartile1−1.5*(quartile3–quartile2), or above quartile3+1.5*(quartile3–quartile2). The ‘smooth.spline’ function in R was used [82], with a smoothing window ‘spar’ set to 0.5]. Note that for 2012, we considered the ex-vessel price of tuna to be 2,000 EUR/t, based on historical trends and various sources of information. This graph is based on 218 ‘country/year’ datapoints. Note that liners usually pay lower fees and also have lower catches than purse-seiners; however, both gear types were given the same weight here (the difference between weighted and non-weighted results was minimal). The implementation of the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) and its three reforms (the third one being ongoing) are indicated by black arrows.

Mentions: The comparison of the fees paid by the fishing industry to the landed value allowed us to estimate the revenue of the industry, in the context of increasingly widespread tuna agreements. The fees paid by the industry (i.e., approximately 25% of the total value of the agreements; see section above and Figure 4B) consistently represented less than 2% of its gross revenue (i.e., ‘ex-vessel price’ multiplied by ‘quota’). After an initial decrease from 2% in 1985 to around 0.8% in 1995, this percentage again increased to about 2% after the second reform of the Common Fisheries Policy (Figure 5). The wider ribbon around the median (which corresponds to the limits beyond which any data point would be considered as an outlier, i.e., data points below quartile1−1.5*[quartile3 – quartile2], or above quartile3+1.5*[quartile3 – quartile2]) over the past decade is mainly the result of higher fees negotiated in the Pacific, especially for Kiribati and Micronesia (Table 1).


European Union's public fishing access agreements in developing countries.

Le Manach F, Chaboud C, Copeland D, Cury P, Gascuel D, Kleisner KM, Standing A, Sumaila UR, Zeller D, Pauly D - PLoS ONE (2013)

Cost of tuna agreements for the industry.Ratio of fees paid by the industry relative to landed value for the tuna component of all agreements. This figure only includes agreements for which there were tuna quotas. The solid line represents the median, while the grey area represents the limit beyond which a point is considered to be an outlier [data points below quartile1−1.5*(quartile3–quartile2), or above quartile3+1.5*(quartile3–quartile2). The ‘smooth.spline’ function in R was used [82], with a smoothing window ‘spar’ set to 0.5]. Note that for 2012, we considered the ex-vessel price of tuna to be 2,000 EUR/t, based on historical trends and various sources of information. This graph is based on 218 ‘country/year’ datapoints. Note that liners usually pay lower fees and also have lower catches than purse-seiners; however, both gear types were given the same weight here (the difference between weighted and non-weighted results was minimal). The implementation of the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) and its three reforms (the third one being ongoing) are indicated by black arrows.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3842348&req=5

pone-0079899-g005: Cost of tuna agreements for the industry.Ratio of fees paid by the industry relative to landed value for the tuna component of all agreements. This figure only includes agreements for which there were tuna quotas. The solid line represents the median, while the grey area represents the limit beyond which a point is considered to be an outlier [data points below quartile1−1.5*(quartile3–quartile2), or above quartile3+1.5*(quartile3–quartile2). The ‘smooth.spline’ function in R was used [82], with a smoothing window ‘spar’ set to 0.5]. Note that for 2012, we considered the ex-vessel price of tuna to be 2,000 EUR/t, based on historical trends and various sources of information. This graph is based on 218 ‘country/year’ datapoints. Note that liners usually pay lower fees and also have lower catches than purse-seiners; however, both gear types were given the same weight here (the difference between weighted and non-weighted results was minimal). The implementation of the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) and its three reforms (the third one being ongoing) are indicated by black arrows.
Mentions: The comparison of the fees paid by the fishing industry to the landed value allowed us to estimate the revenue of the industry, in the context of increasingly widespread tuna agreements. The fees paid by the industry (i.e., approximately 25% of the total value of the agreements; see section above and Figure 4B) consistently represented less than 2% of its gross revenue (i.e., ‘ex-vessel price’ multiplied by ‘quota’). After an initial decrease from 2% in 1985 to around 0.8% in 1995, this percentage again increased to about 2% after the second reform of the Common Fisheries Policy (Figure 5). The wider ribbon around the median (which corresponds to the limits beyond which any data point would be considered as an outlier, i.e., data points below quartile1−1.5*[quartile3 – quartile2], or above quartile3+1.5*[quartile3 – quartile2]) over the past decade is mainly the result of higher fees negotiated in the Pacific, especially for Kiribati and Micronesia (Table 1).

Bottom Line: Although European public fishing agreements are commented on regularly and considered to be transparent, this is the first global and historical study on the fee regime that governs them.We find that the EU has subsidized these agreements at an average of 75% of their cost (financial contribution agreed upon in the agreements), while private European business interests paid the equivalent of 1.5% of the value of the fish that was eventually landed.This raises questions of fisheries benefit-sharing and resource-use equity that the EU has the potential to address during the nearly completed reform of its Common Fisheries Policy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Sea Around Us Project, Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada ; Unité Mixte de Recherche 212 Ecosystèmes Marins Exploités, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Sète, France.

ABSTRACT
The imperative to increase seafood supply while dealing with its overfished local stocks has pushed the European Union (EU) and its Member States to fish in the Exclusive Economic Zones of other countries through various types of fishing agreements for decades. Although European public fishing agreements are commented on regularly and considered to be transparent, this is the first global and historical study on the fee regime that governs them. We find that the EU has subsidized these agreements at an average of 75% of their cost (financial contribution agreed upon in the agreements), while private European business interests paid the equivalent of 1.5% of the value of the fish that was eventually landed. This raises questions of fisheries benefit-sharing and resource-use equity that the EU has the potential to address during the nearly completed reform of its Common Fisheries Policy.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus