Limits...
Vitamin D status during pregnancy and the risk of subsequent postpartum depression: a case-control study.

Nielsen NO, Strøm M, Boyd HA, Andersen EW, Wohlfahrt J, Lundqvist M, Cohen A, Hougaard DM, Melbye M - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: Overall, we found no association between vitamin D concentrations and risk of PPD (p = 0.08).Our results did not support an association between low maternal vitamin D concentrations during pregnancy and risk of PPD.Instead, an increased risk of PPD was found among women with the highest vitamin D concentrations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark ; National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark.

ABSTRACT
Epidemiological studies have provided evidence of an association between vitamin D insufficiency and depression and other mood disorders, and a role for vitamin D in various brain functions has been suggested. We hypothesized that low vitamin D status during pregnancy might increase the risk of postpartum depression (PPD). The objective of the study was thus to determine whether low vitamin D status during pregnancy was associated with postpartum depression. In a case-control study nested in the Danish National Birth Cohort, we measured late pregnancy serum concentrations of 25[OH]D3 in 605 women with PPD and 875 controls. Odds ratios [OR) for PPD were calculated for six levels of 25[OH]D3. Overall, we found no association between vitamin D concentrations and risk of PPD (p = 0.08). Compared with women with vitamin D concentrations between 50 and 79 nmol/L, the adjusted odds ratios for PPD were 1.35 (95% CI: 0.64; 2.85), 0.83 (CI: 0.50; 1.39) and 1.13 (CI: 0.84; 1.51) among women with vitamin D concentrations < 15 nmol/L, 15-24 nmol/L and 25-49 nmol/L, respectively, and 1.53 (CI: 1.04; 2.26) and 1.89 (CI: 1.06; 3.37) among women with vitamin D concentrations of 80-99 nmol/L and ≥ 100 nmol/L, respectively. In an additional analysis among women with sufficient vitamin D (≥ 50 nmol/L), we observed a significant positive association between vitamin D concentrations and PPD. Our results did not support an association between low maternal vitamin D concentrations during pregnancy and risk of PPD. Instead, an increased risk of PPD was found among women with the highest vitamin D concentrations.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Association between postpartum depression and vitamin D.The fitted fractional polynomial model of degree 3 (FP (3)) with 95% CI in black and the categorical estimates in blue. The odds ratios are from the fully adjusted model adjusting for maternal age, year of delivery, season, gestation week, parity, smoking, socio economic status, BMI group, physical activity and social support and multivitamin supplement. The reference concentration is 60 nmol/L. The fractional polynomial part of the final model is estimated to be: log Odds =  constant+0.46·X3+0.27·X3·ln(X) -3.26·X3·ln(X)2, where X = vitamin D/100.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3842313&req=5

pone-0080686-g001: Association between postpartum depression and vitamin D.The fitted fractional polynomial model of degree 3 (FP (3)) with 95% CI in black and the categorical estimates in blue. The odds ratios are from the fully adjusted model adjusting for maternal age, year of delivery, season, gestation week, parity, smoking, socio economic status, BMI group, physical activity and social support and multivitamin supplement. The reference concentration is 60 nmol/L. The fractional polynomial part of the final model is estimated to be: log Odds =  constant+0.46·X3+0.27·X3·ln(X) -3.26·X3·ln(X)2, where X = vitamin D/100.

Mentions: Figure 1 compares odds ratios for PPD generated using a fractional polynomial with a vitamin D concentration of 60 nmol/L as the reference point (model estimates are given in the figure legend), with ORs from the fully adjusted analyses presented in Table 2. By using fractional polynomials, which accommodate non-linear relationships between the vitamin D variable and the outcome variable PPD, we avoided to choose cut-points to categorize the vitamin D variable. The results from the two approaches gave very similar results but use of the fractional polynomial gave a smooth curve that avoided assuming jumps in risk.


Vitamin D status during pregnancy and the risk of subsequent postpartum depression: a case-control study.

Nielsen NO, Strøm M, Boyd HA, Andersen EW, Wohlfahrt J, Lundqvist M, Cohen A, Hougaard DM, Melbye M - PLoS ONE (2013)

Association between postpartum depression and vitamin D.The fitted fractional polynomial model of degree 3 (FP (3)) with 95% CI in black and the categorical estimates in blue. The odds ratios are from the fully adjusted model adjusting for maternal age, year of delivery, season, gestation week, parity, smoking, socio economic status, BMI group, physical activity and social support and multivitamin supplement. The reference concentration is 60 nmol/L. The fractional polynomial part of the final model is estimated to be: log Odds =  constant+0.46·X3+0.27·X3·ln(X) -3.26·X3·ln(X)2, where X = vitamin D/100.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3842313&req=5

pone-0080686-g001: Association between postpartum depression and vitamin D.The fitted fractional polynomial model of degree 3 (FP (3)) with 95% CI in black and the categorical estimates in blue. The odds ratios are from the fully adjusted model adjusting for maternal age, year of delivery, season, gestation week, parity, smoking, socio economic status, BMI group, physical activity and social support and multivitamin supplement. The reference concentration is 60 nmol/L. The fractional polynomial part of the final model is estimated to be: log Odds =  constant+0.46·X3+0.27·X3·ln(X) -3.26·X3·ln(X)2, where X = vitamin D/100.
Mentions: Figure 1 compares odds ratios for PPD generated using a fractional polynomial with a vitamin D concentration of 60 nmol/L as the reference point (model estimates are given in the figure legend), with ORs from the fully adjusted analyses presented in Table 2. By using fractional polynomials, which accommodate non-linear relationships between the vitamin D variable and the outcome variable PPD, we avoided to choose cut-points to categorize the vitamin D variable. The results from the two approaches gave very similar results but use of the fractional polynomial gave a smooth curve that avoided assuming jumps in risk.

Bottom Line: Overall, we found no association between vitamin D concentrations and risk of PPD (p = 0.08).Our results did not support an association between low maternal vitamin D concentrations during pregnancy and risk of PPD.Instead, an increased risk of PPD was found among women with the highest vitamin D concentrations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark ; National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark.

ABSTRACT
Epidemiological studies have provided evidence of an association between vitamin D insufficiency and depression and other mood disorders, and a role for vitamin D in various brain functions has been suggested. We hypothesized that low vitamin D status during pregnancy might increase the risk of postpartum depression (PPD). The objective of the study was thus to determine whether low vitamin D status during pregnancy was associated with postpartum depression. In a case-control study nested in the Danish National Birth Cohort, we measured late pregnancy serum concentrations of 25[OH]D3 in 605 women with PPD and 875 controls. Odds ratios [OR) for PPD were calculated for six levels of 25[OH]D3. Overall, we found no association between vitamin D concentrations and risk of PPD (p = 0.08). Compared with women with vitamin D concentrations between 50 and 79 nmol/L, the adjusted odds ratios for PPD were 1.35 (95% CI: 0.64; 2.85), 0.83 (CI: 0.50; 1.39) and 1.13 (CI: 0.84; 1.51) among women with vitamin D concentrations < 15 nmol/L, 15-24 nmol/L and 25-49 nmol/L, respectively, and 1.53 (CI: 1.04; 2.26) and 1.89 (CI: 1.06; 3.37) among women with vitamin D concentrations of 80-99 nmol/L and ≥ 100 nmol/L, respectively. In an additional analysis among women with sufficient vitamin D (≥ 50 nmol/L), we observed a significant positive association between vitamin D concentrations and PPD. Our results did not support an association between low maternal vitamin D concentrations during pregnancy and risk of PPD. Instead, an increased risk of PPD was found among women with the highest vitamin D concentrations.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus