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Neural mechanisms underlying stop-and-restart difficulties: involvement of the motor and perceptual systems.

Yamanaka K, Nozaki D - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: The ability to suddenly stop a planned movement or a movement being performed and restart it after a short interval is an important mechanism that allows appropriate behavior in response to contextual or environmental changes.However, performing such stop-and-restart movements smoothly is difficult at times.We investigated performance (response time) of stop-and-restart movements using a go/stop/re-go task and found consistent stop-and-restart difficulties after short (~100 ms) stop-to-restart intervals (SRSI), and an increased probability of difficulties after longer (>200 ms) SRSIs, suggesting that two different mechanisms underlie stop-and-restart difficulties.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Graduate School of Human Life Sciences, Showa Women's University, Tokyo, Japan.

ABSTRACT
The ability to suddenly stop a planned movement or a movement being performed and restart it after a short interval is an important mechanism that allows appropriate behavior in response to contextual or environmental changes. However, performing such stop-and-restart movements smoothly is difficult at times. We investigated performance (response time) of stop-and-restart movements using a go/stop/re-go task and found consistent stop-and-restart difficulties after short (~100 ms) stop-to-restart intervals (SRSI), and an increased probability of difficulties after longer (>200 ms) SRSIs, suggesting that two different mechanisms underlie stop-and-restart difficulties. Next, we investigated motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in a moving muscle induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation during a go/stop/re-go task. In re-go trials with a short SRSI (100 ms), the MEP amplitude continued to decrease after the re-go-signal onset, indicating that stop-and-restart difficulties with short SRSIs might be associated with a neural mechanism in the human motor system, namely, stop-related suppression of corticomotor (CM) excitability. Finally, we recorded electroencephalogram (EEG) activity during a go/stop/re-go task and performed a single-trial-based EEG power and phase time-frequency analysis. Alpha-band EEG phase locking to re-go-signal, which was only observed in re-go trials with long SRSI (250 ms), weakened in the delayed re-go response trials. These EEG phase dynamics indicate an association between stop-and-restart difficulties with long SRSIs and a neural mechanism in the human perception system, namely, decreased probability of EEG phase locking to visual stimuli. In contrast, smooth stop-and-restart human movement can be achieved in re-go trials with sufficient SRSI (150-200 ms), because release of stop-related suppression and simultaneous counter-activation of CM excitability may occur as a single task without second re-go-signal perception. These results suggest that skilled motor behavior is subject to various constraints in not only motor, but also perceptual (and attentional), systems.

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Results of performance analysis in Experiment 1.(A) Distributions of response time (RT) in go trials obtained from all 15 subjects (left: go/stop task; middle: go/stop/re-go task) and group mean RTs in go trials (right). RT denotes clicking time relative to the target. (B) Group results for the percentage of the correct responses (%correct) in stop trials for each stop time (ST; top left, go/stop task; top center, go/stop/re-go task), group results for %correct in re-go trials for each SRSI (bottom center), and group results of estimated 50%STs and stop-signal reaction times (SSRTs) in go/stop and go/stop/re-go tasks (right). The 50%ST is an estimated stop time in which the probability of successful stopping was 50%. SSRT is the estimated time required for an unobservable stop process. (C) RT distributions for the SRT task and re-go trials with four SRSIs obtained from all 15 subjects (left) and group mean and standard deviation (SD) of RTs in the SRT task and re-go trials with four different stop-to-restart intervals (SRSIs, right). RT denotes clicking time from SRT-signal or re-go-signal onset. Error bars show SD. * p<.05; significant difference in post hoc analyses. † p<.05; significant difference in planned comparisons between RTs in re-go trials for each SRSI and control (SRT trials).
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pone-0082272-g002: Results of performance analysis in Experiment 1.(A) Distributions of response time (RT) in go trials obtained from all 15 subjects (left: go/stop task; middle: go/stop/re-go task) and group mean RTs in go trials (right). RT denotes clicking time relative to the target. (B) Group results for the percentage of the correct responses (%correct) in stop trials for each stop time (ST; top left, go/stop task; top center, go/stop/re-go task), group results for %correct in re-go trials for each SRSI (bottom center), and group results of estimated 50%STs and stop-signal reaction times (SSRTs) in go/stop and go/stop/re-go tasks (right). The 50%ST is an estimated stop time in which the probability of successful stopping was 50%. SSRT is the estimated time required for an unobservable stop process. (C) RT distributions for the SRT task and re-go trials with four SRSIs obtained from all 15 subjects (left) and group mean and standard deviation (SD) of RTs in the SRT task and re-go trials with four different stop-to-restart intervals (SRSIs, right). RT denotes clicking time from SRT-signal or re-go-signal onset. Error bars show SD. * p<.05; significant difference in post hoc analyses. † p<.05; significant difference in planned comparisons between RTs in re-go trials for each SRSI and control (SRT trials).

Mentions: Mean go RTs were 34.3±18.0 ms in the go/stop task and 40.9±20.0 ms in the go/stop/re-go task. And they were more successful at stopping in stop trials the longer the time to the target (Figure 2B, upper left and middle). These results are typical of go and stop trials in the go/stop (or stop-signal) task [1]–[4], [25], .


Neural mechanisms underlying stop-and-restart difficulties: involvement of the motor and perceptual systems.

Yamanaka K, Nozaki D - PLoS ONE (2013)

Results of performance analysis in Experiment 1.(A) Distributions of response time (RT) in go trials obtained from all 15 subjects (left: go/stop task; middle: go/stop/re-go task) and group mean RTs in go trials (right). RT denotes clicking time relative to the target. (B) Group results for the percentage of the correct responses (%correct) in stop trials for each stop time (ST; top left, go/stop task; top center, go/stop/re-go task), group results for %correct in re-go trials for each SRSI (bottom center), and group results of estimated 50%STs and stop-signal reaction times (SSRTs) in go/stop and go/stop/re-go tasks (right). The 50%ST is an estimated stop time in which the probability of successful stopping was 50%. SSRT is the estimated time required for an unobservable stop process. (C) RT distributions for the SRT task and re-go trials with four SRSIs obtained from all 15 subjects (left) and group mean and standard deviation (SD) of RTs in the SRT task and re-go trials with four different stop-to-restart intervals (SRSIs, right). RT denotes clicking time from SRT-signal or re-go-signal onset. Error bars show SD. * p<.05; significant difference in post hoc analyses. † p<.05; significant difference in planned comparisons between RTs in re-go trials for each SRSI and control (SRT trials).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3842301&req=5

pone-0082272-g002: Results of performance analysis in Experiment 1.(A) Distributions of response time (RT) in go trials obtained from all 15 subjects (left: go/stop task; middle: go/stop/re-go task) and group mean RTs in go trials (right). RT denotes clicking time relative to the target. (B) Group results for the percentage of the correct responses (%correct) in stop trials for each stop time (ST; top left, go/stop task; top center, go/stop/re-go task), group results for %correct in re-go trials for each SRSI (bottom center), and group results of estimated 50%STs and stop-signal reaction times (SSRTs) in go/stop and go/stop/re-go tasks (right). The 50%ST is an estimated stop time in which the probability of successful stopping was 50%. SSRT is the estimated time required for an unobservable stop process. (C) RT distributions for the SRT task and re-go trials with four SRSIs obtained from all 15 subjects (left) and group mean and standard deviation (SD) of RTs in the SRT task and re-go trials with four different stop-to-restart intervals (SRSIs, right). RT denotes clicking time from SRT-signal or re-go-signal onset. Error bars show SD. * p<.05; significant difference in post hoc analyses. † p<.05; significant difference in planned comparisons between RTs in re-go trials for each SRSI and control (SRT trials).
Mentions: Mean go RTs were 34.3±18.0 ms in the go/stop task and 40.9±20.0 ms in the go/stop/re-go task. And they were more successful at stopping in stop trials the longer the time to the target (Figure 2B, upper left and middle). These results are typical of go and stop trials in the go/stop (or stop-signal) task [1]–[4], [25], .

Bottom Line: The ability to suddenly stop a planned movement or a movement being performed and restart it after a short interval is an important mechanism that allows appropriate behavior in response to contextual or environmental changes.However, performing such stop-and-restart movements smoothly is difficult at times.We investigated performance (response time) of stop-and-restart movements using a go/stop/re-go task and found consistent stop-and-restart difficulties after short (~100 ms) stop-to-restart intervals (SRSI), and an increased probability of difficulties after longer (>200 ms) SRSIs, suggesting that two different mechanisms underlie stop-and-restart difficulties.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Graduate School of Human Life Sciences, Showa Women's University, Tokyo, Japan.

ABSTRACT
The ability to suddenly stop a planned movement or a movement being performed and restart it after a short interval is an important mechanism that allows appropriate behavior in response to contextual or environmental changes. However, performing such stop-and-restart movements smoothly is difficult at times. We investigated performance (response time) of stop-and-restart movements using a go/stop/re-go task and found consistent stop-and-restart difficulties after short (~100 ms) stop-to-restart intervals (SRSI), and an increased probability of difficulties after longer (>200 ms) SRSIs, suggesting that two different mechanisms underlie stop-and-restart difficulties. Next, we investigated motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in a moving muscle induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation during a go/stop/re-go task. In re-go trials with a short SRSI (100 ms), the MEP amplitude continued to decrease after the re-go-signal onset, indicating that stop-and-restart difficulties with short SRSIs might be associated with a neural mechanism in the human motor system, namely, stop-related suppression of corticomotor (CM) excitability. Finally, we recorded electroencephalogram (EEG) activity during a go/stop/re-go task and performed a single-trial-based EEG power and phase time-frequency analysis. Alpha-band EEG phase locking to re-go-signal, which was only observed in re-go trials with long SRSI (250 ms), weakened in the delayed re-go response trials. These EEG phase dynamics indicate an association between stop-and-restart difficulties with long SRSIs and a neural mechanism in the human perception system, namely, decreased probability of EEG phase locking to visual stimuli. In contrast, smooth stop-and-restart human movement can be achieved in re-go trials with sufficient SRSI (150-200 ms), because release of stop-related suppression and simultaneous counter-activation of CM excitability may occur as a single task without second re-go-signal perception. These results suggest that skilled motor behavior is subject to various constraints in not only motor, but also perceptual (and attentional), systems.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus