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Contribution of the microbial communities detected on an oil painting on canvas to its biodeterioration.

López-Miras Mdel M, Martín-Sánchez I, Yebra-Rodríguez A, Romero-Noguera J, Bolívar-Galiano F, Ettenauer J, Sterflinger K, Piñar G - PLoS ONE (2013)

Bottom Line: The results derived from the two techniques were disparate.From this information, "mock paintings," simulating the structure of the original painting, were prepared, inoculated with the selected bacterial and fungal strains, and subsequently examined by micro-Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, in order to determine their potential susceptibility to microbial degradation.The FTIR-spectra revealed that neither Arthrobacter sp. nor Penicillium sp. alone, were able to induce chemical changes on the various materials used to prepare "mock paintings." Only when inoculated together, could a synergistic effect on the FTIR-spectra be observed, in the form of a variation in band position on the spectrum.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.

ABSTRACT
In this study, we investigated the microbial community (bacteria and fungi) colonising an oil painting on canvas, which showed visible signs of biodeterioration. A combined strategy, comprising culture-dependent and -independent techniques, was selected. The results derived from the two techniques were disparate. Most of the isolated bacterial strains belonged to related species of the phylum Firmicutes, as Bacillus sp. and Paenisporosarcina sp., whereas the majority of the non-cultivable members of the bacterial community were shown to be related to species of the phylum Proteobacteria, as Stenotrophomonas sp. Fungal communities also showed discrepancies: the isolated fungal strains belonged to different genera of the order Eurotiales, as Penicillium and Eurotium, and the non-cultivable belonged to species of the order Pleosporales and Saccharomycetales. The cultivable microorganisms, which exhibited enzymatic activities related to the deterioration processes, were selected to evaluate their biodeteriorative potential on canvas paintings; namely Arthrobacter sp. as the representative bacterium and Penicillium sp. as the representative fungus. With this aim, a sample taken from the painting studied in this work was examined to determine the stratigraphic sequence of its cross-section. From this information, "mock paintings," simulating the structure of the original painting, were prepared, inoculated with the selected bacterial and fungal strains, and subsequently examined by micro-Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, in order to determine their potential susceptibility to microbial degradation. The FTIR-spectra revealed that neither Arthrobacter sp. nor Penicillium sp. alone, were able to induce chemical changes on the various materials used to prepare "mock paintings." Only when inoculated together, could a synergistic effect on the FTIR-spectra be observed, in the form of a variation in band position on the spectrum.

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The painting “Virgen de Guadalupe” (oil on canvas) and magnification of the sampling areas.A) Sample VG1, face side of the painting; B) Sample VG2, face side; C) Samples VG7 and VG4, face side in areas showing biodeterioration signs; D) Sample VG5, reverse side in an area showing biodeterioration signs; E) Sample VG6, face side in an area showing biodeterioration signs; F) Sample VG3, face side; G) Sample VG9, face side in an area showing no signs of biodeterioration; H) Sample VG8, reverse side in an area showing no signs of biodeterioration.
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pone-0080198-g001: The painting “Virgen de Guadalupe” (oil on canvas) and magnification of the sampling areas.A) Sample VG1, face side of the painting; B) Sample VG2, face side; C) Samples VG7 and VG4, face side in areas showing biodeterioration signs; D) Sample VG5, reverse side in an area showing biodeterioration signs; E) Sample VG6, face side in an area showing biodeterioration signs; F) Sample VG3, face side; G) Sample VG9, face side in an area showing no signs of biodeterioration; H) Sample VG8, reverse side in an area showing no signs of biodeterioration.

Mentions: Samples were taken from the oil painting on canvas “Virgen de Guadalupe”, which showed signs of biodeterioration. The painting, by an anonymous artist, was exhibited at the convent of San Antón (Granada, Spain). No specific permission was required for sampling, however the permission of the Mother Superior of the convent was sought prior to conducting the study, and the restorer Julia Ramos supervised the sampling. During a restoration campaign, two types of samples were collected to characterize the microbial community present on the painting, these being: swab samples from the surface of the painting and material scraped off the painting (Fig. 1).


Contribution of the microbial communities detected on an oil painting on canvas to its biodeterioration.

López-Miras Mdel M, Martín-Sánchez I, Yebra-Rodríguez A, Romero-Noguera J, Bolívar-Galiano F, Ettenauer J, Sterflinger K, Piñar G - PLoS ONE (2013)

The painting “Virgen de Guadalupe” (oil on canvas) and magnification of the sampling areas.A) Sample VG1, face side of the painting; B) Sample VG2, face side; C) Samples VG7 and VG4, face side in areas showing biodeterioration signs; D) Sample VG5, reverse side in an area showing biodeterioration signs; E) Sample VG6, face side in an area showing biodeterioration signs; F) Sample VG3, face side; G) Sample VG9, face side in an area showing no signs of biodeterioration; H) Sample VG8, reverse side in an area showing no signs of biodeterioration.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3842293&req=5

pone-0080198-g001: The painting “Virgen de Guadalupe” (oil on canvas) and magnification of the sampling areas.A) Sample VG1, face side of the painting; B) Sample VG2, face side; C) Samples VG7 and VG4, face side in areas showing biodeterioration signs; D) Sample VG5, reverse side in an area showing biodeterioration signs; E) Sample VG6, face side in an area showing biodeterioration signs; F) Sample VG3, face side; G) Sample VG9, face side in an area showing no signs of biodeterioration; H) Sample VG8, reverse side in an area showing no signs of biodeterioration.
Mentions: Samples were taken from the oil painting on canvas “Virgen de Guadalupe”, which showed signs of biodeterioration. The painting, by an anonymous artist, was exhibited at the convent of San Antón (Granada, Spain). No specific permission was required for sampling, however the permission of the Mother Superior of the convent was sought prior to conducting the study, and the restorer Julia Ramos supervised the sampling. During a restoration campaign, two types of samples were collected to characterize the microbial community present on the painting, these being: swab samples from the surface of the painting and material scraped off the painting (Fig. 1).

Bottom Line: The results derived from the two techniques were disparate.From this information, "mock paintings," simulating the structure of the original painting, were prepared, inoculated with the selected bacterial and fungal strains, and subsequently examined by micro-Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, in order to determine their potential susceptibility to microbial degradation.The FTIR-spectra revealed that neither Arthrobacter sp. nor Penicillium sp. alone, were able to induce chemical changes on the various materials used to prepare "mock paintings." Only when inoculated together, could a synergistic effect on the FTIR-spectra be observed, in the form of a variation in band position on the spectrum.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.

ABSTRACT
In this study, we investigated the microbial community (bacteria and fungi) colonising an oil painting on canvas, which showed visible signs of biodeterioration. A combined strategy, comprising culture-dependent and -independent techniques, was selected. The results derived from the two techniques were disparate. Most of the isolated bacterial strains belonged to related species of the phylum Firmicutes, as Bacillus sp. and Paenisporosarcina sp., whereas the majority of the non-cultivable members of the bacterial community were shown to be related to species of the phylum Proteobacteria, as Stenotrophomonas sp. Fungal communities also showed discrepancies: the isolated fungal strains belonged to different genera of the order Eurotiales, as Penicillium and Eurotium, and the non-cultivable belonged to species of the order Pleosporales and Saccharomycetales. The cultivable microorganisms, which exhibited enzymatic activities related to the deterioration processes, were selected to evaluate their biodeteriorative potential on canvas paintings; namely Arthrobacter sp. as the representative bacterium and Penicillium sp. as the representative fungus. With this aim, a sample taken from the painting studied in this work was examined to determine the stratigraphic sequence of its cross-section. From this information, "mock paintings," simulating the structure of the original painting, were prepared, inoculated with the selected bacterial and fungal strains, and subsequently examined by micro-Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, in order to determine their potential susceptibility to microbial degradation. The FTIR-spectra revealed that neither Arthrobacter sp. nor Penicillium sp. alone, were able to induce chemical changes on the various materials used to prepare "mock paintings." Only when inoculated together, could a synergistic effect on the FTIR-spectra be observed, in the form of a variation in band position on the spectrum.

Show MeSH