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Cognitive factors correlating with the metacognition of the phenomenal properties of experience.

Mogi K - Sci Rep (2013)

Bottom Line: Various cognitive tendencies correlated with the metacognition of phenomenal experience.The awareness of qualia was found to increase significantly with age, suggesting a continuous learning process.These results suggest that heterogeneities in the metacognition of phenomenal properties of experience are important constraints in human cognition.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Sony Computer Science Laboratories, Takanawa Muse Building, 3-14-13 Higashi-Gotanda, Tokyo 141-0022 Japan.

ABSTRACT
The awareness of the phenomenal qualities of one's experiences can be considered as an instance of metacognition. Although some people take qualia (sensory qualities such as the redness of red) as salient features of phenomenal experience, others have expressed views that doubt or deny the central importance of qualia. How do such cognitive heterogeneities occur? What parameters influence them? Here I examine the relationship between the awareness of the phenomenal qualities of subjective experience (qualia and free will) and general cognitive tendencies. The awareness of qualia was found to be more varied among subjects compared to the belief in free will. Various cognitive tendencies correlated with the metacognition of phenomenal experience. The awareness of qualia was found to increase significantly with age, suggesting a continuous learning process. These results suggest that heterogeneities in the metacognition of phenomenal properties of experience are important constraints in human cognition.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

The awareness of qualia and knowledge in the cognitive sciences.There was a significant correlation between the reported awareness of qualia and the number of items the subject reported to know out of the 10 items in the cognitive sciences (r = 0.343, p = 1.8 × 10−32). The items in the questionnaire were: a. metacognition, b. theory of mind, c. savants, d. episodic memory, e. sparse coding, f. anterior cingulate cortex, g. dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, h. binding problem, i. scale error, j. reinforcement learning. There was a similar positive correlation between the awareness of qualia and knowledge in the mathematical/physical sciences.
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f1: The awareness of qualia and knowledge in the cognitive sciences.There was a significant correlation between the reported awareness of qualia and the number of items the subject reported to know out of the 10 items in the cognitive sciences (r = 0.343, p = 1.8 × 10−32). The items in the questionnaire were: a. metacognition, b. theory of mind, c. savants, d. episodic memory, e. sparse coding, f. anterior cingulate cortex, g. dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, h. binding problem, i. scale error, j. reinforcement learning. There was a similar positive correlation between the awareness of qualia and knowledge in the mathematical/physical sciences.

Mentions: A correlation was found between the awareness of qualia and the subject's reported academic performance at school (r = 0.141, p = 2.3 × 10−6). On the other hand, there was no significant correlation between the belief in free will and the academic performance at school (p = 0.074). There was a significant correlation between the awareness of qualia and knowledge in the mathematical/physical sciences (the number of items the subjects reported to know in question 15, r = 0.189, p = 1.4 × 10−10). There was a negative correlation between the belief in free will and knowledge in the mathematical/physical sciences (r = −0.081, p = 0.0045). There was a significant correlation between the knowledge in the cognitive sciences (the number of items the subjects reported to know in question 16) and the awareness of qualia, (r = 0.343, p = 1.8 × 10−32, Fig. 1), but not with the belief in free will (p = 0.18). The analysis of correlations with self-reported IQ (question 18) was dropped, as only 13.6% (153) of subjects reported their IQ scores voluntarily, with an average of 123.4, indicating a possible bias in reporting.


Cognitive factors correlating with the metacognition of the phenomenal properties of experience.

Mogi K - Sci Rep (2013)

The awareness of qualia and knowledge in the cognitive sciences.There was a significant correlation between the reported awareness of qualia and the number of items the subject reported to know out of the 10 items in the cognitive sciences (r = 0.343, p = 1.8 × 10−32). The items in the questionnaire were: a. metacognition, b. theory of mind, c. savants, d. episodic memory, e. sparse coding, f. anterior cingulate cortex, g. dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, h. binding problem, i. scale error, j. reinforcement learning. There was a similar positive correlation between the awareness of qualia and knowledge in the mathematical/physical sciences.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3842081&req=5

f1: The awareness of qualia and knowledge in the cognitive sciences.There was a significant correlation between the reported awareness of qualia and the number of items the subject reported to know out of the 10 items in the cognitive sciences (r = 0.343, p = 1.8 × 10−32). The items in the questionnaire were: a. metacognition, b. theory of mind, c. savants, d. episodic memory, e. sparse coding, f. anterior cingulate cortex, g. dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, h. binding problem, i. scale error, j. reinforcement learning. There was a similar positive correlation between the awareness of qualia and knowledge in the mathematical/physical sciences.
Mentions: A correlation was found between the awareness of qualia and the subject's reported academic performance at school (r = 0.141, p = 2.3 × 10−6). On the other hand, there was no significant correlation between the belief in free will and the academic performance at school (p = 0.074). There was a significant correlation between the awareness of qualia and knowledge in the mathematical/physical sciences (the number of items the subjects reported to know in question 15, r = 0.189, p = 1.4 × 10−10). There was a negative correlation between the belief in free will and knowledge in the mathematical/physical sciences (r = −0.081, p = 0.0045). There was a significant correlation between the knowledge in the cognitive sciences (the number of items the subjects reported to know in question 16) and the awareness of qualia, (r = 0.343, p = 1.8 × 10−32, Fig. 1), but not with the belief in free will (p = 0.18). The analysis of correlations with self-reported IQ (question 18) was dropped, as only 13.6% (153) of subjects reported their IQ scores voluntarily, with an average of 123.4, indicating a possible bias in reporting.

Bottom Line: Various cognitive tendencies correlated with the metacognition of phenomenal experience.The awareness of qualia was found to increase significantly with age, suggesting a continuous learning process.These results suggest that heterogeneities in the metacognition of phenomenal properties of experience are important constraints in human cognition.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Sony Computer Science Laboratories, Takanawa Muse Building, 3-14-13 Higashi-Gotanda, Tokyo 141-0022 Japan.

ABSTRACT
The awareness of the phenomenal qualities of one's experiences can be considered as an instance of metacognition. Although some people take qualia (sensory qualities such as the redness of red) as salient features of phenomenal experience, others have expressed views that doubt or deny the central importance of qualia. How do such cognitive heterogeneities occur? What parameters influence them? Here I examine the relationship between the awareness of the phenomenal qualities of subjective experience (qualia and free will) and general cognitive tendencies. The awareness of qualia was found to be more varied among subjects compared to the belief in free will. Various cognitive tendencies correlated with the metacognition of phenomenal experience. The awareness of qualia was found to increase significantly with age, suggesting a continuous learning process. These results suggest that heterogeneities in the metacognition of phenomenal properties of experience are important constraints in human cognition.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus