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Dietary anthocyanins as nutritional therapy for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

Valenti L, Riso P, Mazzocchi A, Porrini M, Fargion S, Agostoni C - Oxid Med Cell Longev (2013)

Bottom Line: NAFLD encompasses a wide spectrum of liver disease ranging from simple uncomplicated steatosis, to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma.It has been reported that anthocyanins (ACNs) decrease hepatic lipid accumulation and may counteract oxidative stress and hepatic inflammation, but their impact on NAFLD has yet to be fully determined.ACNs are water-soluble bioactive compounds of the polyphenol class present in many vegetable products.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation (DEPT), Università degli Studi di Milano, Internal Medicine, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Policlinico, 20122 Milano, Italy.

ABSTRACT
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), defined by excessive lipid accumulation in the liver, is the hepatic manifestation of insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. Due to the epidemics of obesity, NAFLD is rapidly becoming the leading cause of altered liver enzymes in Western countries. NAFLD encompasses a wide spectrum of liver disease ranging from simple uncomplicated steatosis, to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Diet may affect the development of NAFLD either by increasing risk or by providing protective factors. Therefore, it is important to investigate the role of foods and/or food bioactives on the metabolic processes involved in steatohepatitis for preventive strategies. It has been reported that anthocyanins (ACNs) decrease hepatic lipid accumulation and may counteract oxidative stress and hepatic inflammation, but their impact on NAFLD has yet to be fully determined. ACNs are water-soluble bioactive compounds of the polyphenol class present in many vegetable products. Here, we summarize the evidence evaluating the mechanisms of action of ACNs on hepatic lipid metabolism in different experimental setting: in vitro, in vivo, and in human trials. Finally, a working model depicting the possible mechanisms underpinning the beneficial effects of ACNs in NAFLD is proposed, based on the available literature.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

General chemical structures of anthocyanins in the diet. R3 = sugar (i.e., glucose, arabinose, galactose, as monomers, or dimers). Sugars can be present also on ring A; moreover acylation of sugars with aliphatic and/or aromatic acids can be found.
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fig1: General chemical structures of anthocyanins in the diet. R3 = sugar (i.e., glucose, arabinose, galactose, as monomers, or dimers). Sugars can be present also on ring A; moreover acylation of sugars with aliphatic and/or aromatic acids can be found.

Mentions: ACNs are water-soluble bioactive compounds, which belong to the widespread group named flavonoids within the polyphenol class. Chemically, ACNs consist of two aromatic rings linked by three carbons in an oxygenated heterocycle. The chromophore of ACNs is the 7-hydroxyflavylium ion. In particular, ACNs consist of an aglycon base or flavylium ring (anthocyanidins), sugars, and possibly acylating groups (Figure 1) [7]. ACNs are responsible for the red, purple and blue colors of many flowers, cereal grains, fruit, and vegetable. They are generally found in the skins, and their content is usually proportional to color intensity. ACN content varies greatly depending on the different food sources considered (Table 1) [8]. More than 600 different ACNs have been identified in vegetables, derived from twenty-three different aglycones (anthocyanidins) classified according to the number and position of hydroxyl and methoxyl groups on the flavan nucleus. The six anthocyanidins commonly found in fruit and vegetables are pelargonidin, cyanidin, delphinidin, peonidin, petunidin, and malvidin which are combined with sugars (mostly glucose, galactose, and arabinose) (Figure 1) [8].


Dietary anthocyanins as nutritional therapy for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

Valenti L, Riso P, Mazzocchi A, Porrini M, Fargion S, Agostoni C - Oxid Med Cell Longev (2013)

General chemical structures of anthocyanins in the diet. R3 = sugar (i.e., glucose, arabinose, galactose, as monomers, or dimers). Sugars can be present also on ring A; moreover acylation of sugars with aliphatic and/or aromatic acids can be found.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3824564&req=5

fig1: General chemical structures of anthocyanins in the diet. R3 = sugar (i.e., glucose, arabinose, galactose, as monomers, or dimers). Sugars can be present also on ring A; moreover acylation of sugars with aliphatic and/or aromatic acids can be found.
Mentions: ACNs are water-soluble bioactive compounds, which belong to the widespread group named flavonoids within the polyphenol class. Chemically, ACNs consist of two aromatic rings linked by three carbons in an oxygenated heterocycle. The chromophore of ACNs is the 7-hydroxyflavylium ion. In particular, ACNs consist of an aglycon base or flavylium ring (anthocyanidins), sugars, and possibly acylating groups (Figure 1) [7]. ACNs are responsible for the red, purple and blue colors of many flowers, cereal grains, fruit, and vegetable. They are generally found in the skins, and their content is usually proportional to color intensity. ACN content varies greatly depending on the different food sources considered (Table 1) [8]. More than 600 different ACNs have been identified in vegetables, derived from twenty-three different aglycones (anthocyanidins) classified according to the number and position of hydroxyl and methoxyl groups on the flavan nucleus. The six anthocyanidins commonly found in fruit and vegetables are pelargonidin, cyanidin, delphinidin, peonidin, petunidin, and malvidin which are combined with sugars (mostly glucose, galactose, and arabinose) (Figure 1) [8].

Bottom Line: NAFLD encompasses a wide spectrum of liver disease ranging from simple uncomplicated steatosis, to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma.It has been reported that anthocyanins (ACNs) decrease hepatic lipid accumulation and may counteract oxidative stress and hepatic inflammation, but their impact on NAFLD has yet to be fully determined.ACNs are water-soluble bioactive compounds of the polyphenol class present in many vegetable products.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation (DEPT), Università degli Studi di Milano, Internal Medicine, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Policlinico, 20122 Milano, Italy.

ABSTRACT
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), defined by excessive lipid accumulation in the liver, is the hepatic manifestation of insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. Due to the epidemics of obesity, NAFLD is rapidly becoming the leading cause of altered liver enzymes in Western countries. NAFLD encompasses a wide spectrum of liver disease ranging from simple uncomplicated steatosis, to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Diet may affect the development of NAFLD either by increasing risk or by providing protective factors. Therefore, it is important to investigate the role of foods and/or food bioactives on the metabolic processes involved in steatohepatitis for preventive strategies. It has been reported that anthocyanins (ACNs) decrease hepatic lipid accumulation and may counteract oxidative stress and hepatic inflammation, but their impact on NAFLD has yet to be fully determined. ACNs are water-soluble bioactive compounds of the polyphenol class present in many vegetable products. Here, we summarize the evidence evaluating the mechanisms of action of ACNs on hepatic lipid metabolism in different experimental setting: in vitro, in vivo, and in human trials. Finally, a working model depicting the possible mechanisms underpinning the beneficial effects of ACNs in NAFLD is proposed, based on the available literature.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus