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Effectiveness of Panax ginseng on Acute Myocardial Ischemia Reperfusion Injury Was Abolished by Flutamide via Endogenous Testosterone-Mediated Akt Pathway.

Pei L, Shaozhen H, Gengting D, Tingbo C, Liang L, Hua Z - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2013)

Bottom Line: RSE (80 mg/kg) significantly inhibited myocardial infarction and CK and LDH activities, while coadministration of flutamide abolished this effect of RSE.Western blot analysis showed that RSE significantly reversed the decreases of expression and activation of PI3K, Akt, and eNOS evoked by ischemia, whereas flutamide attenuated the effects of these protective mechanisms induced by RSE.Our results for the first time indicate that blocking androgen receptor abolishes the ability of Panax ginseng to protect the heart from myocardial I/R injury.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory for Quality Research of Chinese Medicine, Macau University of Science and Technology, Avenida Wai Long, Taipa, Macau, China.

ABSTRACT
Mechanisms for Panax ginseng's cardioprotective effect against ischemia reperfusion injury involve the estrogen-mediated pathway, but little is known about the role of androgen. A standardized Panax ginseng extract (RSE) was orally given with or without flutamide in a left anterior descending coronary artery ligation rat model. Infarct size, CK and LDH activities were measured. Time-related changes of NO, PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling, and testosterone concentration were also investigated. RSE (80 mg/kg) significantly inhibited myocardial infarction and CK and LDH activities, while coadministration of flutamide abolished this effect of RSE. NO was increased by RSE and reached a peak after 15 min of ischemia; however, flutamide cotreatment suppressed this elevation. Western blot analysis showed that RSE significantly reversed the decreases of expression and activation of PI3K, Akt, and eNOS evoked by ischemia, whereas flutamide attenuated the effects of these protective mechanisms induced by RSE. RSE completely reversed the dropping of endogenous testosterone level induced by I/R injury. Flutamide plus RSE treatment not only abolished RSE's effect but also produced a dramatic change on endogenous testosterone level after pretreatment and ischemia. Our results for the first time indicate that blocking androgen receptor abolishes the ability of Panax ginseng to protect the heart from myocardial I/R injury.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Chromatographic fingerprint of standardized ginseng extract (RSE).
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Related In: Results  -  Collection


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fig1: Chromatographic fingerprint of standardized ginseng extract (RSE).

Mentions: The standardized ginseng extract RSE was prepared by ethanol extraction, a well-established and generally accepted method for preparing ginseng extract. The extraction parameters were optimized in our experiments to obtain a good recovery of major ginsenosides with consistent quality. In brief, the root was refluxed with 5 volumes (versus ginseng weight) of 70% ethanol 3 hr three times. The ethanol extracts were pooled and concentrated at 60°C under vacuum evaporation (0.08 MPa) to half the original volume. The concentrate was finally freeze-dried to powder. The extraction rate was 28%, meaning 1 kg ginseng produced 280 g RSE. To examine the chemical consistency of RSE, the chemical fingerprint (Figure 1) of RSE was established on a Phenomenex ODS column (250 mm × 4.6 mm i.d.; particle size 5 μm; Phenomenex Inc., USA) protected by a Security Guard Cartridge (C18, 4 mm × 3.0 mm i.d.; Phenomenex Inc., USA) by using high performance liquid chromatography (1100, Agilent Technologies, CA, USA) equipped with a G1312A binary pump, G1379A degasser, G1315B diode-array detector, and G1313A autosampler. The mobile phase was acetonitrile (A) and water (B), and the separation was conducted in a gradient manner, in which the ratio of A was 19%, 19%, 29%, 29%, and 40% at 0, 35, 55, 70, and 100 min, respectively. The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min. Detection was conducted at 203 nm. The HPLC fingerprint of RSE is shown in Figure 1. The contents of Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rc, Rb2, and Rd in RSE were 7.63, 6.90, 12.21, 10.65, 7.24, and 4.59 mg/g, respectively.


Effectiveness of Panax ginseng on Acute Myocardial Ischemia Reperfusion Injury Was Abolished by Flutamide via Endogenous Testosterone-Mediated Akt Pathway.

Pei L, Shaozhen H, Gengting D, Tingbo C, Liang L, Hua Z - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2013)

Chromatographic fingerprint of standardized ginseng extract (RSE).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3824556&req=5

fig1: Chromatographic fingerprint of standardized ginseng extract (RSE).
Mentions: The standardized ginseng extract RSE was prepared by ethanol extraction, a well-established and generally accepted method for preparing ginseng extract. The extraction parameters were optimized in our experiments to obtain a good recovery of major ginsenosides with consistent quality. In brief, the root was refluxed with 5 volumes (versus ginseng weight) of 70% ethanol 3 hr three times. The ethanol extracts were pooled and concentrated at 60°C under vacuum evaporation (0.08 MPa) to half the original volume. The concentrate was finally freeze-dried to powder. The extraction rate was 28%, meaning 1 kg ginseng produced 280 g RSE. To examine the chemical consistency of RSE, the chemical fingerprint (Figure 1) of RSE was established on a Phenomenex ODS column (250 mm × 4.6 mm i.d.; particle size 5 μm; Phenomenex Inc., USA) protected by a Security Guard Cartridge (C18, 4 mm × 3.0 mm i.d.; Phenomenex Inc., USA) by using high performance liquid chromatography (1100, Agilent Technologies, CA, USA) equipped with a G1312A binary pump, G1379A degasser, G1315B diode-array detector, and G1313A autosampler. The mobile phase was acetonitrile (A) and water (B), and the separation was conducted in a gradient manner, in which the ratio of A was 19%, 19%, 29%, 29%, and 40% at 0, 35, 55, 70, and 100 min, respectively. The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min. Detection was conducted at 203 nm. The HPLC fingerprint of RSE is shown in Figure 1. The contents of Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rc, Rb2, and Rd in RSE were 7.63, 6.90, 12.21, 10.65, 7.24, and 4.59 mg/g, respectively.

Bottom Line: RSE (80 mg/kg) significantly inhibited myocardial infarction and CK and LDH activities, while coadministration of flutamide abolished this effect of RSE.Western blot analysis showed that RSE significantly reversed the decreases of expression and activation of PI3K, Akt, and eNOS evoked by ischemia, whereas flutamide attenuated the effects of these protective mechanisms induced by RSE.Our results for the first time indicate that blocking androgen receptor abolishes the ability of Panax ginseng to protect the heart from myocardial I/R injury.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory for Quality Research of Chinese Medicine, Macau University of Science and Technology, Avenida Wai Long, Taipa, Macau, China.

ABSTRACT
Mechanisms for Panax ginseng's cardioprotective effect against ischemia reperfusion injury involve the estrogen-mediated pathway, but little is known about the role of androgen. A standardized Panax ginseng extract (RSE) was orally given with or without flutamide in a left anterior descending coronary artery ligation rat model. Infarct size, CK and LDH activities were measured. Time-related changes of NO, PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling, and testosterone concentration were also investigated. RSE (80 mg/kg) significantly inhibited myocardial infarction and CK and LDH activities, while coadministration of flutamide abolished this effect of RSE. NO was increased by RSE and reached a peak after 15 min of ischemia; however, flutamide cotreatment suppressed this elevation. Western blot analysis showed that RSE significantly reversed the decreases of expression and activation of PI3K, Akt, and eNOS evoked by ischemia, whereas flutamide attenuated the effects of these protective mechanisms induced by RSE. RSE completely reversed the dropping of endogenous testosterone level induced by I/R injury. Flutamide plus RSE treatment not only abolished RSE's effect but also produced a dramatic change on endogenous testosterone level after pretreatment and ischemia. Our results for the first time indicate that blocking androgen receptor abolishes the ability of Panax ginseng to protect the heart from myocardial I/R injury.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus