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Pesticide risk assessment and management in a globally changing world--report from a European interdisciplinary workshop.

Babut M, Arts GH, Barra Caracciolo A, Carluer N, Domange N, Friberg N, Gouy V, Grung M, Lagadic L, Martin-Laurent F, Mazzella N, Pesce S, Real B, Reichenberger S, Roex EW, Romijn K, Röttele M, Stenrød M, Tournebize J, Vernier F, Vindimian E - Environ Sci Pollut Res Int (2013)

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Irstea, UR MALY, 5 rue de la Doua, CS70077, 69626, Villeurbanne, France, marc.babut@irstea.fr.

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Global change, in particular climate change, will affect agriculture worldwide in many ways: increased drought or flooding amplitude and frequency, variable temperature increases, loss of natural depuration of waters, soil erosion, loss of soil carbon content, invasion by alien species, increased pest events, changes in plant phenology, increased sensitivity of crops to stress and diseases etc. (Fisher et al. ; Howden et al. )... Depending on the chemical properties of pesticides as well as environmental factors, decreasing the amounts of pesticides applied to crops will not automatically produce a decrease in the risk to non-target species or water supply... What adaptations should be envisaged for agriculture/pesticide risk management (RM)? These changes will probably have a profound effect on agricultural systems (crop selection, farming practices etc.) and to a lesser extent influence the fate and effects of chemicals (Schiedek et al. )... The workshop's specific goals were to (1) discuss the pesticide risk assessment (RA) approach, its limitations (e.g. spatial scale and multi-stress situations), the connections between different policies (pesticide regulation and Water Framework Directive), the use of models, (2) review integrated practices and innovative technologies which could or are intended to reduce pesticides' environmental impacts and (3) contribute to the future research and development agenda... Future projected trends in European agriculture include a northward shift of crop suitability zones and increasing crop productivity in Northern Europe, but declining productivity and crop viability in southern areas (Olesen & Bindi ; Falloon & Betts )... Climate change impacts differ per crop and per CO2 emission scenario; whereas crops planted in autumn and winter may benefit from the increasing CO2 concentrations, those planted in spring may benefit less because of the increasing temperature and reduced rainfall (Supit et al. )... However, monitoring results show that in practice, aquatic ecosystems are exposed to a cocktail of pesticides at the same time (e.g. (Beketov et al. ; Rasmussen et al. )... These concentrations are quite often relatively low and usually do not exceed the individual EQS or probable no-effect concentrations (PNECs)... Mitigation measures concern not only individual farmers but also the community of farmers active in the same watershed... Buffer strips, for example, cannot be an effective mitigation measure if farmers do not work together in a commonly agreed way (buffers across fields)... Monitoring has two functions within the RM cycle... First, it is a key element in the evaluation of the effectiveness of measures adopted for reducing risk... Especially when monitoring pesticides, passive samplers have an advantage compared to grab sampling, as they generate a time-integrated picture of the substances which entered the aquatic compartment during the sampling duration... The overall relevance of RA as well as its realism could benefit from a better understanding of the links between biodiversity and ecosystem services (see (Landis et al. )), and how these services are likely to be affected by climate change.

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Proposed flow chart for adaptive management of authorised pesticides based on monitoring results in the Netherlands
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Fig2: Proposed flow chart for adaptive management of authorised pesticides based on monitoring results in the Netherlands

Mentions: Monitoring studies are mostly oriented towards compliance checking. In this perspective, percentiles of measured concentrations are compared with EQSs. In Europe, this has essentially stemmed from the WFD implementation, but the compounds and locations targeted may not be the most relevant for the agricultural sector. The focus is on a limited set of priority substances (EC 2012), with no consideration of effective use for some of them. Conversely, the on-going re-authorisation process in Europe is reducing the number of substances available on the market, and accordingly increasing the amounts of the remaining authorised compounds marketed. On the other hand, introducing new priority substances and developing EQSs is a complex and lengthy process, which is somewhat doomed to be behind the times. More flexible monitoring strategies clearly linked to RM decisions are therefore needed, when it comes to assessing the efficiency of these decisions. Such strategies would be adapted to local RM, including stakeholder involvement in environmental protection policies. In the same perspective, monitoring studies should support the authorisation/re-authorisation process, and show whether the exposure assessments performed within this process are realistic. This process is currently being tested in the Netherlands, following the process described in Fig. 2. Monitoring results are used to prioritise substances, according to EQS exceedance in water bodies. Then registration holders have to analyse the potential causes of exceedance, and submit a plan for reducing emissions. This could lead to authorisation adjustments or other management measures. Interestingly, “plausible” relationships between uses and EQS exceedance, instead of causal relationships, are deemed sufficient. If the EQS exceedance occurred only at the edge of field ditches, the substance would not be on the priority list.Fig. 2


Pesticide risk assessment and management in a globally changing world--report from a European interdisciplinary workshop.

Babut M, Arts GH, Barra Caracciolo A, Carluer N, Domange N, Friberg N, Gouy V, Grung M, Lagadic L, Martin-Laurent F, Mazzella N, Pesce S, Real B, Reichenberger S, Roex EW, Romijn K, Röttele M, Stenrød M, Tournebize J, Vernier F, Vindimian E - Environ Sci Pollut Res Int (2013)

Proposed flow chart for adaptive management of authorised pesticides based on monitoring results in the Netherlands
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3824372&req=5

Fig2: Proposed flow chart for adaptive management of authorised pesticides based on monitoring results in the Netherlands
Mentions: Monitoring studies are mostly oriented towards compliance checking. In this perspective, percentiles of measured concentrations are compared with EQSs. In Europe, this has essentially stemmed from the WFD implementation, but the compounds and locations targeted may not be the most relevant for the agricultural sector. The focus is on a limited set of priority substances (EC 2012), with no consideration of effective use for some of them. Conversely, the on-going re-authorisation process in Europe is reducing the number of substances available on the market, and accordingly increasing the amounts of the remaining authorised compounds marketed. On the other hand, introducing new priority substances and developing EQSs is a complex and lengthy process, which is somewhat doomed to be behind the times. More flexible monitoring strategies clearly linked to RM decisions are therefore needed, when it comes to assessing the efficiency of these decisions. Such strategies would be adapted to local RM, including stakeholder involvement in environmental protection policies. In the same perspective, monitoring studies should support the authorisation/re-authorisation process, and show whether the exposure assessments performed within this process are realistic. This process is currently being tested in the Netherlands, following the process described in Fig. 2. Monitoring results are used to prioritise substances, according to EQS exceedance in water bodies. Then registration holders have to analyse the potential causes of exceedance, and submit a plan for reducing emissions. This could lead to authorisation adjustments or other management measures. Interestingly, “plausible” relationships between uses and EQS exceedance, instead of causal relationships, are deemed sufficient. If the EQS exceedance occurred only at the edge of field ditches, the substance would not be on the priority list.Fig. 2

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Irstea, UR MALY, 5 rue de la Doua, CS70077, 69626, Villeurbanne, France, marc.babut@irstea.fr.

AUTOMATICALLY GENERATED EXCERPT
Please rate it.

Global change, in particular climate change, will affect agriculture worldwide in many ways: increased drought or flooding amplitude and frequency, variable temperature increases, loss of natural depuration of waters, soil erosion, loss of soil carbon content, invasion by alien species, increased pest events, changes in plant phenology, increased sensitivity of crops to stress and diseases etc. (Fisher et al. ; Howden et al. )... Depending on the chemical properties of pesticides as well as environmental factors, decreasing the amounts of pesticides applied to crops will not automatically produce a decrease in the risk to non-target species or water supply... What adaptations should be envisaged for agriculture/pesticide risk management (RM)? These changes will probably have a profound effect on agricultural systems (crop selection, farming practices etc.) and to a lesser extent influence the fate and effects of chemicals (Schiedek et al. )... The workshop's specific goals were to (1) discuss the pesticide risk assessment (RA) approach, its limitations (e.g. spatial scale and multi-stress situations), the connections between different policies (pesticide regulation and Water Framework Directive), the use of models, (2) review integrated practices and innovative technologies which could or are intended to reduce pesticides' environmental impacts and (3) contribute to the future research and development agenda... Future projected trends in European agriculture include a northward shift of crop suitability zones and increasing crop productivity in Northern Europe, but declining productivity and crop viability in southern areas (Olesen & Bindi ; Falloon & Betts )... Climate change impacts differ per crop and per CO2 emission scenario; whereas crops planted in autumn and winter may benefit from the increasing CO2 concentrations, those planted in spring may benefit less because of the increasing temperature and reduced rainfall (Supit et al. )... However, monitoring results show that in practice, aquatic ecosystems are exposed to a cocktail of pesticides at the same time (e.g. (Beketov et al. ; Rasmussen et al. )... These concentrations are quite often relatively low and usually do not exceed the individual EQS or probable no-effect concentrations (PNECs)... Mitigation measures concern not only individual farmers but also the community of farmers active in the same watershed... Buffer strips, for example, cannot be an effective mitigation measure if farmers do not work together in a commonly agreed way (buffers across fields)... Monitoring has two functions within the RM cycle... First, it is a key element in the evaluation of the effectiveness of measures adopted for reducing risk... Especially when monitoring pesticides, passive samplers have an advantage compared to grab sampling, as they generate a time-integrated picture of the substances which entered the aquatic compartment during the sampling duration... The overall relevance of RA as well as its realism could benefit from a better understanding of the links between biodiversity and ecosystem services (see (Landis et al. )), and how these services are likely to be affected by climate change.

Show MeSH