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Pesticide risk assessment and management in a globally changing world--report from a European interdisciplinary workshop.

Babut M, Arts GH, Barra Caracciolo A, Carluer N, Domange N, Friberg N, Gouy V, Grung M, Lagadic L, Martin-Laurent F, Mazzella N, Pesce S, Real B, Reichenberger S, Roex EW, Romijn K, Röttele M, Stenrød M, Tournebize J, Vernier F, Vindimian E - Environ Sci Pollut Res Int (2013)

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Affiliation: Irstea, UR MALY, 5 rue de la Doua, CS70077, 69626, Villeurbanne, France, marc.babut@irstea.fr.

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Global change, in particular climate change, will affect agriculture worldwide in many ways: increased drought or flooding amplitude and frequency, variable temperature increases, loss of natural depuration of waters, soil erosion, loss of soil carbon content, invasion by alien species, increased pest events, changes in plant phenology, increased sensitivity of crops to stress and diseases etc. (Fisher et al. ; Howden et al. )... Depending on the chemical properties of pesticides as well as environmental factors, decreasing the amounts of pesticides applied to crops will not automatically produce a decrease in the risk to non-target species or water supply... What adaptations should be envisaged for agriculture/pesticide risk management (RM)? These changes will probably have a profound effect on agricultural systems (crop selection, farming practices etc.) and to a lesser extent influence the fate and effects of chemicals (Schiedek et al. )... The workshop's specific goals were to (1) discuss the pesticide risk assessment (RA) approach, its limitations (e.g. spatial scale and multi-stress situations), the connections between different policies (pesticide regulation and Water Framework Directive), the use of models, (2) review integrated practices and innovative technologies which could or are intended to reduce pesticides' environmental impacts and (3) contribute to the future research and development agenda... Future projected trends in European agriculture include a northward shift of crop suitability zones and increasing crop productivity in Northern Europe, but declining productivity and crop viability in southern areas (Olesen & Bindi ; Falloon & Betts )... Climate change impacts differ per crop and per CO2 emission scenario; whereas crops planted in autumn and winter may benefit from the increasing CO2 concentrations, those planted in spring may benefit less because of the increasing temperature and reduced rainfall (Supit et al. )... However, monitoring results show that in practice, aquatic ecosystems are exposed to a cocktail of pesticides at the same time (e.g. (Beketov et al. ; Rasmussen et al. )... These concentrations are quite often relatively low and usually do not exceed the individual EQS or probable no-effect concentrations (PNECs)... Mitigation measures concern not only individual farmers but also the community of farmers active in the same watershed... Buffer strips, for example, cannot be an effective mitigation measure if farmers do not work together in a commonly agreed way (buffers across fields)... Monitoring has two functions within the RM cycle... First, it is a key element in the evaluation of the effectiveness of measures adopted for reducing risk... Especially when monitoring pesticides, passive samplers have an advantage compared to grab sampling, as they generate a time-integrated picture of the substances which entered the aquatic compartment during the sampling duration... The overall relevance of RA as well as its realism could benefit from a better understanding of the links between biodiversity and ecosystem services (see (Landis et al. )), and how these services are likely to be affected by climate change.

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The risk management cycle (adapted from USEPA 1998)
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Fig1: The risk management cycle (adapted from USEPA 1998)

Mentions: Conceptually, pesticide RA and management activities can be represented as a cycle alternating RA, RM and monitoring in a continuous improvement process (Fig. 1). The Euraqua-PEER workshop attendees discussed the approaches available or desirable for exposure or effect assessments, as well as RM and monitoring. They also acknowledged that this cycle tends to be virtual, in that the steps are often disconnected.Fig. 1


Pesticide risk assessment and management in a globally changing world--report from a European interdisciplinary workshop.

Babut M, Arts GH, Barra Caracciolo A, Carluer N, Domange N, Friberg N, Gouy V, Grung M, Lagadic L, Martin-Laurent F, Mazzella N, Pesce S, Real B, Reichenberger S, Roex EW, Romijn K, Röttele M, Stenrød M, Tournebize J, Vernier F, Vindimian E - Environ Sci Pollut Res Int (2013)

The risk management cycle (adapted from USEPA 1998)
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3824372&req=5

Fig1: The risk management cycle (adapted from USEPA 1998)
Mentions: Conceptually, pesticide RA and management activities can be represented as a cycle alternating RA, RM and monitoring in a continuous improvement process (Fig. 1). The Euraqua-PEER workshop attendees discussed the approaches available or desirable for exposure or effect assessments, as well as RM and monitoring. They also acknowledged that this cycle tends to be virtual, in that the steps are often disconnected.Fig. 1

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Irstea, UR MALY, 5 rue de la Doua, CS70077, 69626, Villeurbanne, France, marc.babut@irstea.fr.

AUTOMATICALLY GENERATED EXCERPT
Please rate it.

Global change, in particular climate change, will affect agriculture worldwide in many ways: increased drought or flooding amplitude and frequency, variable temperature increases, loss of natural depuration of waters, soil erosion, loss of soil carbon content, invasion by alien species, increased pest events, changes in plant phenology, increased sensitivity of crops to stress and diseases etc. (Fisher et al. ; Howden et al. )... Depending on the chemical properties of pesticides as well as environmental factors, decreasing the amounts of pesticides applied to crops will not automatically produce a decrease in the risk to non-target species or water supply... What adaptations should be envisaged for agriculture/pesticide risk management (RM)? These changes will probably have a profound effect on agricultural systems (crop selection, farming practices etc.) and to a lesser extent influence the fate and effects of chemicals (Schiedek et al. )... The workshop's specific goals were to (1) discuss the pesticide risk assessment (RA) approach, its limitations (e.g. spatial scale and multi-stress situations), the connections between different policies (pesticide regulation and Water Framework Directive), the use of models, (2) review integrated practices and innovative technologies which could or are intended to reduce pesticides' environmental impacts and (3) contribute to the future research and development agenda... Future projected trends in European agriculture include a northward shift of crop suitability zones and increasing crop productivity in Northern Europe, but declining productivity and crop viability in southern areas (Olesen & Bindi ; Falloon & Betts )... Climate change impacts differ per crop and per CO2 emission scenario; whereas crops planted in autumn and winter may benefit from the increasing CO2 concentrations, those planted in spring may benefit less because of the increasing temperature and reduced rainfall (Supit et al. )... However, monitoring results show that in practice, aquatic ecosystems are exposed to a cocktail of pesticides at the same time (e.g. (Beketov et al. ; Rasmussen et al. )... These concentrations are quite often relatively low and usually do not exceed the individual EQS or probable no-effect concentrations (PNECs)... Mitigation measures concern not only individual farmers but also the community of farmers active in the same watershed... Buffer strips, for example, cannot be an effective mitigation measure if farmers do not work together in a commonly agreed way (buffers across fields)... Monitoring has two functions within the RM cycle... First, it is a key element in the evaluation of the effectiveness of measures adopted for reducing risk... Especially when monitoring pesticides, passive samplers have an advantage compared to grab sampling, as they generate a time-integrated picture of the substances which entered the aquatic compartment during the sampling duration... The overall relevance of RA as well as its realism could benefit from a better understanding of the links between biodiversity and ecosystem services (see (Landis et al. )), and how these services are likely to be affected by climate change.

Show MeSH